Original rules: E. Gary Gygax, Dave Arneson
Authors: Simon J. Bull, Cameron Dubeers
Production: Simon J. Bull
Proof readers: Ethan Sincox, Peter Fröhlich, Zach Howard, David Macauley
Technical Help: Peter Fröhlich, Ramanan Sivaranjan
Delving Deeper title: Mark Allen
v4.150505 from DD Ref Rules v4b
Discuss at http://forum.immersiveink.com/
Copyright © 2014-2015 Simon J. Bull
Delving Deeper is a gateway to realms where magic works and dragons are real, where elves and dwarfs fight alongside men against goblins and giants, and where a strong sword arm can carry the day in battle. All that is needed to play is some basic stationery, a few friends, and a vivid imagination.
One player will referee the fantasy world while the others assume the role of adventurers and explore it. As heroes and wizards they will face its challenges, defeating monsters and winning fabulous treasures as they rise to fame or, if they are careless, vanish into obscurity.
Players should begin with Section I which details characters that can be played, equipment and hirelings that can be had, and spells that are available to magic-using sorts. Players need read no further.
Aspiring referees are advised to continue immediately on to Section II wherein are guidelines for constructing a campaign world and filling it with dungeons, monsters, and treasures, and advice on conducting adventures around these. Finally, Section III is intended as a reference for referees; it contains all manner of monsters—from androids to zombies—and treasures including magical wands, weapons, and a plethora of other items.
Delving Deeper is a role-playing game in which the players control player characters (PCs) and the referee controls non-player characters (NPCs) including monsters. All these have a number of hit dice (HD) which are six-sided dice thrown to see how many hit points (hp) can be sustained before being slain. Armor class (AC) is a measure of protection against physical attack, while saving throws are made to avert fates such as poisoning, being turned to stone, or being vaporized by dragon’s breath. Player characters accumulate experience points (XP) in order to advance to each successive level of ability.
are given as inches. An inch represents a real distance according to the scale of play. At the dungeon combat scale 1" represents 10 feet. At the wilderness combat scale 1" represents 10 yards. At the overland and ocean exploration scale 1" of movement represents 1 mile per day.
pertains to depth underground. The 1st dungeon level is the shallowest, the 2nd dungeon level is the next deeper level, and so on. Deeper dungeon levels are more dangerous and more rewarding than shallower dungeon levels. Players will usually determine what dungeon level they wish to explore.
ranks the relative power of player characters. Players begin at the 1st (least powerful) experience level and work their way upward. While experience levels are theoretically unlimited these rules assume the majority of play will occur at the 1st through 12th experience levels.
(gp) are the basic unit of currency for which goods are traded. One gold piece is worth 10 silver pieces or 100 copper pieces. There are 20 coins of any type to one pound.
include all man-types of heroic stature and all monsters that represent a heroic threat. Collectively these are all creatures with 3 or more hit dice but fewer than 7 hit dice.
are all men and other creatures of same basic proportions including androids, cavemen, dwarfs, elves, gnolls, gnomes, goblins, halflings, hobgoblins, kobolds, lizardmen, mermen, nixies, orcs, and pixies. The majority of man-types are also normal-types but exceptional individuals can be heroic- or superheroic-types instead.
are all creatures controlled by the referee. These include dragons, orcs, vampires, and other genuine horrors of the underworld as well as the townsfolk, hirelings, and even non-player heroes of the game world.
is a throw of two six-sided dice used by the referee to determine the behavior of monsters (including man-types) in potentially life-threatening circumstances, particularly in combat.
are all non-magical projectiles including spears, stones, arrows, and bolts loosed by normal man-types. An otherwise normal missile loosed by a heroic/superheroic-type is considered heroic.
include all man-types of less than heroic status and all other creatures of similar stature. Collectively these are all creatures with fewer than 3 hit dice.
are all non-magical arms including swords, spears, axes, and maces wielded by normal man-types. An otherwise normal weapon wielded by a heroic/superheroic-type is considered heroic.
is a throw of two six-sided dice used by the referee to determine how monsters (including man-types) will react to the players, particularly upon their first meeting and in negotiations.
is a throw of a single twenty-sided die used by the player to avert a potentially life-threatening calamity such as being poisoned, turned to stone, or vaporized by a dragon’s breath weapon.
include all man-types of superheroic stature and all monsters that represent a superheroic threat. Collectively these are all creatures with 7 or more hit dice.
is a throw of a hundred-sided die used by the player or referee to determine whether a character or monster will survive being raised from the dead, polymorphed into another shape, or restored to flesh after being turned to stone.
are any period during which a player chooses an action for his character. At the dungeon and wilderness combat scales a turn represents one minute. At the dungeon exploration scale a turn represents ten minutes. At the wilderness exploration scale a turn represents one day.
The supplies essential for play are detailed below, followed by optional extras which a player may desire. The essentials are all readily available and inexpensive (or free); even polyhedral dice are easily obtained at hobby stores and online.
Delving Deeper players require six- and twenty-sided dice. A few will do but play will be quicker with half a dozen (or more) of each. For a genuine retro feel twenty-sided dice can be marked 0-9 twice, with 0 representing ten and one of the two 0-9 series being identified as adding ten.
A player should initially learn something about the campaign world from the referee. This information may be sketchy or generous depending on how prepared the referee is and how many players have come before. In either case it is the player’s role to insert his new character into the fantasy world and augment it with his presence. Whether he comes to riches or ruin, each character should be noted!
Before choosing a character the player should familiarize himself with the options presented herein. He may desire to play a certain type of character from the outset but should be equally prepared to go with whatever the dice may bring.
If the dice occasionally seem unkind the player is reminded that great enjoyment can arise from unconventional characters and from dramatic demises. Such will be the fate of many adventurers.
The player should be ready to participate in the game, tackling the challenges presented with creativity and imagination—this is the greater part of the game. Above all the player must be prepared to accept the rulings of the referee and to enjoy whatever game circumstances may arise.
The adventure begins... Now!
Having learned something about the campaign world from the referee, the player’s first order of business is to construct a fantasy persona called a character. The player will thereafter control this character’s actions in the game.
Each character must choose a side in the eternal struggle. He is either of law or of chaos or is otherwise neutral.
Law is civility and order and upholds the greater good. Chaos is anarchy and brutality and undermines the greater good. Neutrality is neither for law nor chaos but for the individual and for those with no stake in the grander contest.
Characters are ranked in six abilities: strength, intelligence, wisdom, dexterity, constitution, and charisma. Each is determined, in order, by the referee with a throw of three six-sided dice producing scores between 3 and 18. The player should record these figures on a character sheet or note paper before selecting his class.
One of the six abilities is considered to be the prime requisite for each class of character. Fighters should be strong, magic-users should be intelligent, and clerics should be wise.
A character will acquire a greater or lesser number of experience points from his adventures according to his prime requisite ability score.
While a high score may predispose a player toward a particular class and a low score may dissuade him, ability scores do not preclude the selection of any class. Nor do they determine a character’s success (player strategy being paramount in that).
Suppose, for example, an intending player was given these ability scores:
With a wisdom score of 6 this character would advance slowly as a cleric. His keen intelligence means he could do well as a magic-user; however, because of a preconceived inclination toward heroic combat, the player elects the role of a fighter. His strength of 11 is perfectly respectable and his constitution of 12 indicates good fitness. A dexterity score of 10 is neither quick nor slow, but his ordinary charisma score means this player should not depend overly on the loyalty of his followers.
Following is an explanation of each of the six abilities.
is raw physical power. It is useful for forcing doors, lifting gates, and carrying heavy equipment including treasure! Strength is the prime requisite for fighters.
allowed by load are for man-sized and man-like types. These should be scaled appropriately for other types but any character reduced to half his movement rate is considered to be encumbered. Movement rates are expressed in inches which are scaled according to the environment being explored to produce the actual ground rate.
is cunning, acumen, and book learning and one additional language is known for every point beyond 10. Intelligence is the prime requisite for magic-users and is useful to the referee for determining what course of action a non-player character should take.
are spoken throughout the game world with each intelligent type having its own tongue. Man-types also share a “common tongue” which 20% of all speaking creatures will know.
Additionally, there are the tongues of law, chaos, and neutrality which are known to the speaking membership of those alignments. Creatures of one alignment will recognize the other alignment tongues without comprehending them. Chaotics will attack speakers of law and vice versa.
Player characters always know at least two languages: the common tongue and an alignment tongue. Non-human player characters may know additional languages as will all characters with above average intelligence. Additionally, there are spells and magic items that will aid in the comprehension of unknown languages.
is intuition, common sense, and maturity. Each 2 points of wisdom beyond 10 will add 1 point to the character’s prime requisite for the purpose of calculating experience points earned. Wisdom is the prime requisite for clerics and functions as does intelligence in determining what course of action a non-player character should take.
is reaction speed, coordination, and agility. It is useful for accurate shooting and for quick reflexes when initiative is in question. Dexterity is the prime requisite for thieves (if these are used).
is vim, fitness, and toughness. It determines what damage can be endured and whether or not a character can withstand being raised from the dead, polymorphed, or petrified.
is the probability that a character will survive the greatest physical ordeals. This check is required to be raised from the dead (any failed attempt indicates that no subsequent attempt can ever succeed), to survive returning to flesh after being turned to stone, and to survive transformation into another shape by the baleful polymorph spell.
is comeliness, personal charm, and social influence. It is useful in determining reactions, in negotiations, and for attracting monsters into service. It determines the number of retainers a character can have and the loyalty of any hirelings.
Having been given ability scores the player must select a class. Characters begin at the 1st level in the chosen class and thereafter advance to successive experience levels by returning to a safe haven after accumulating the necessary number of experience points.
given on the following charts are always six-sided and are thrown to determine the number of hit points of damage that can be sustained before death. Hit dice are thrown and summed with any additions being added to the total.
The figures given for each saving throw category are those required on a twenty-sided die to avert various calamities.
(XP) are earned primarily by recovering (not merely finding) treasure. 1 XP is awarded per gold piece worth of treasure recovered though the division of any such riches, and hence any XP, is entirely up to the players.
Experience points are also earned by defeating monsters. 100 XP are awarded for each hit die of each enemy defeated. The referee may increase the base award for especially dangerous enemies including those with poisonous, paralyzing, or multiple attacks.
Experience awards for defeating monsters are scaled according to the ratio of the dungeon level to the character level so that higher level players are encouraged to seek appropriate challenges. If a party of 1st level characters were to defeat a dozen 1 HD orcs on the 1st dungeon level they would be awarded 1,200 XP between them. If a party of 6th level characters defeated the same orcs they would earn one-sixth as many XP because they are 6th level characters exploring the 1st dungeon level.
Note that no character can advance more than a single experience level in a single adventure. He will always fall at least 1 XP short of gaining a second experience level with any excess XP discarded.
Clerics must choose law or chaos; they cannot remain neutral in the eternal struggle. Either type must remain steadfast in this choice or be stripped of his status.
Clerics of the lawful sort are virtuous knights and templars whose purpose is to vanquish evil. Their conviction in the righteousness of this mission enables them to turn the undead and to invoke miracles. In performing their duty clerics are allowed shields and any armor but the use of edged or piercing weapons is forbidden.
A cleric begins play with a spell book containing the 1st level spells and can thereafter cast a number of spells each day appropriate for his experience level. So long as he adheres to his faith a cleric will gain access to spells of successive spell levels as he advances in experience, and can devise spells of his own besides.
When a cleric achieves 9th level he can establish a stronghold and the religious fervor of the workforce will reduce any construction costs by half. Once established, a stronghold will attract a body of 50-300 fanatically loyal dervishes who will serve without payment (the referee will determine the exact composition of this force). If the surrounding countryside is kept clear of monsters this holding will attract faithful settlers each of whom can pay 2 gp in tithes and taxes per month.
Mindless undead need never check morale and cannot be subdued but all the undead are subject to being turned away—or even destroyed utterly—by a faithful cleric who forcefully presents a Cross. Turning the undead is accomplished by throwing two six-sided dice and comparing the result to the following table.
Should a cleric fail to turn an undead monster he cannot attempt to turn that monster again until sunrise.
Clerics of the chaotic sort are called anti-clerics. They are intended as villains and their purpose is to vanquish good. They cannot turn the undead but have a selection of reversed clerical spells which they can employ with impunity. Otherwise, they function as do clerics except that an anti-cleric stronghold will attract zealots rather than dervishes.
Fighters are soldiers, champions, and other warriors who engage in toe-to-toe and missile combat. Of all the classes they are the most formidable in attack and can withstand the most damage. A fighter has the use of any armor or shield and all weaponry, including missiles and spears. Moreover, magic swords and the majority of other enchanted weapons are usable exclusively by them.
In melee combat versus normal-types a fighter throws one attack roll as a 1st level fighter for each of his own hit die. Starting at 4th level he adds +1 to morale checks of any troops he leads in combat, and he will not be targeted by normal-types while there are normal targets available.
At 8th level and above a fighter is aware of invisible opponents within 3" and normal-types require a positive morale check to stand their ground if he charges them. He is unable to cast spells, however, and has a limited selection of other magical items.
When a fighter achieves 9th level he can establish a stronghold and declare himself its Lord. If the surrounding countryside is kept clear of monsters this holding will attract settlers each of whom can pay 1 gp in taxes per month.
Magic-users are potentially the most powerful class but they are also the most vulnerable; they can wear no armor and can use only daggers and staves as weapons. A magic-user can, however, cast magic spells. He begins play with a spell book containing the 1st level spells and can cast a number of spells from memory each day appropriate for his experience level. He gains access to spells of successive spell levels as he advances in experience, and can devise his own spells besides.
A magic-user has use of the greatest selection of enchanted items. All save for arms (other than daggers and staves), armor, and a handful of clerical items are at his disposal. Should these prove insufficient a magic-user of at least 9th level can enchant items of his own. The cost and time required to enchant an item will be commensurate with its value.
can be fighters but are limited to 4th level. They are deadly accurate with hurled missiles adjusting attack rolls by +3, and will identify noises when listening at doors with a throw of 5-6 on a six-sided die. They are nearly invisible when they blend into the background and can move almost silently. Despite their diminutive stature halflings are surprisingly resilient and make all saving throws at four levels higher than their actual level.
dwell underground and see equally well by day or by night. They are limited to 6th level as fighters but make all saving throws at four levels above their actual level and are the only characters able to employ the +3 war hammer to its full potential. They are adept at evading large, clumsy enemies and suffer only half damage from foes such as ogres and giants.
Dwarfs are expert miners and are able to note any new constructions, shifting walls, slopes, falling slabs, false floors and the like in dungeon stonework. They will identify noises when listening at doors with a throw of 5-6 on a six-sided die.
Dwarfs are able to speak the languages of gnomes, goblins, and kobolds in addition to their own language, their alignment tongue, and the common tongue.
begin as either fighters or magic-users but can change class between adventures as often as desired. An elf becomes dual-classed when he changes class for the first time and may thereafter use both the weaponry of a fighter and the spells of a magic-user simultaneously.
The dual-classed character must maintain separate experience point totals for each of his classes, with all earned experience going toward his currently active class. He uses the more favorable game statistics of both classes during play but cannot act as a magic-user while wearing non-magical armor.
Elves deal +1 hit point of damage when employing magic weapons and can move and fire a bow without penalty when on foot. They are nearly invisible in their gray-green cloaks and can move almost silently. When actively searching they will locate secret doors with a throw of 3-6 on a six-sided die. When merely passing by they will do so with a throw of 5-6 on a six-sided die. They will identify noises when listening at doors with a throw of 5-6 on a six-sided die and are immune to the paralyzing touch of ghouls and thulls. They are, however, limited to 4th level as fighters and to 8th level as magic-users.
Elves are able to speak the languages of gnolls, hobgoblins, and orcs as well as their own language, their alignment tongue, and the common tongue.
Thieves are sneaks, trouble-shooters, and infiltrators who operate by cunning and subtlety. Men, elves, dwarfs, and halflings can advance without limitation but because thieves are necessarily underhanded they cannot be aligned with law. Dexterity is their prime requisite.
Although able to employ daggers, slings, and short swords thieves lack the resilience of proper fighters and can wear leather armor only. Furthermore, a thief is best suited to striking from behind with surprise. In these circumstances a +4 adjustment is applied to the attack roll and a successful attack will cause two damage dice at levels 1-4, four damage dice at levels 5-10, and six damage dice at levels 11-12.
This aside, a thief is especially skilled in many subterfuges including:
A thief accomplishes all these with a throw of 3-6 on a six-sided die. Should he fail to disarm a trap it will instead be sprung with all the usual consequences.
At 3rd level and above a thief is equally able to discern the meaning of any non-magical cipher, message, map, or other written instruction. At 9th level and above this ability extends to casting magic-user spells from scrolls.
Even if the referee allows class changes no character can ever change class during an adventure, nor can a cleric ever change to a magic-user or vice versa. Human characters require a minimum score of 16 in the prime requisite of the class they intend to change to. Non-human characters have no such requirement.
A character becomes dual-classed when he changes class for the first time and thereafter enjoys the benefits of both classes simultaneously. A dual-classed cleric is always restricted in his choice of weaponry and a dual-classed magic-user (other than an elf, who may act as a magic-user while wearing magical armor) must always go unarmored. A dual-classed thief (if these are used) is always restricted to leather armor.
The player of a dual-classed character must maintain separate experience point totals for each of his classes. Experience is only ever earned toward one class at a time, as elected by the player at the beginning of each adventure. A dual-classed character may change class (for the purpose of allocating experience points) at any time, subject to the aforementioned restrictions. The more favorable game statistics of his classes are used during play.
The classes herein will provide many challenges for beginners and experts alike but are by no means exhaustive. There is no reason why a player could not play a noble centaur, a cunning lizardman, or any other type of character should the referee permit it. Whatever these other classes may be, the referee should ensure that they start out relatively weak and have scope to advance in power as do the other classes.
There is no reason a human character cannot rise beyond 12th level. If higher level play is desired from the outset players should consider the limitations of non-human characters carefully before selecting them. When players progress beyond 12th level the referee can extrapolate spell casting progressions from the existing charts and may wish to introduce higher level spells and abilities for each class.
If higher level play is not desired characters can be retired after 12th level, becoming political figures in the campaign under the referee’s stewardship. The player is then free to create a new character to play.
Characters will likely require the services of hired help. Hirelings of various sorts can be found in towns, cities, and possibly in villages. Hirelings are ordinary men including guides, messengers, porters, and torch bearers who will perform mundane duties for upkeep plus a fee of 2 gp per month or 2 sp per day. With enough gold there is no limit to how many hirelings a character can employ.
While ordinary hirelings can be had for upkeep plus 2 gp per month mercenaries are another matter. These are neutrally aligned soldiers whose monthly fee is commensurate with their function and equipment.
Monthly fees are in addition to the cost of upkeep.
Footmen are equipped with leather armor and shield and armored footmen with mail armor and shield. Missile men have leather armor only. Horsemen always have mounts in addition.
Elf and dwarf mercenaries are uncommon and orcs are employable by chaotics only; otherwise, these can be hired at towns or strongholds, or wherever else they are encamped. With enough gold there is no limit to the number of mercenaries a character can employ.
More unusual help including monsters and player types can also be sought. These are called retainers and the number allowed at any one time is limited by a character’s charisma score.
A character can seek retainers during his adventures or advertise his need by posting notices, hiring heralds, frequenting taverns, or sending emissaries to foreign lands where likely candidates are known to dwell. The cost and effectiveness of these endeavors is left to the referee’s discretion.
If a prospective retainer is located the character can make an offer of employment. Only the lowest level player types will be seeking employment and these will not be tempted for any offer worth less than 100 gp. Dwarfs desire especially gold, elves and magic-users desire spells and magic items, clerics desire crusades and places to worship, and so on.
Characters can enlist monsters of the same alignment by regular negotiation. Others (including higher level player types) can be pressed into service by coercion with a charm spell or by physical subdual in combat.
Magic spells notwithstanding, some incentive must be offered to entice a monster into service. The character should decide what he believes would be useful or valuable to the monster and make his offer (merely sparing its life is insufficient). The monster’s reaction will be determined by the referee and adjusted according to the offer and the character’s charisma. A character can attempt a richer offer only if the monster’s reaction is “uncertain”.
When a monster or non-player character enters into a player character’s service the referee will secretly determine his loyalty, which may subsequently be adjusted for excellent or poor treatment. Additional pay, gifts of arms, armor, or magic items, and the rising fame (or infamy) of an employer can increase loyalty. Unjust treatment, poor prospects, or unfit conditions can decrease loyalty.
So long as a retainer is treated reasonably, receives the agreed payment, and is not exposed to unnecessary danger his loyalty will not be tested. In extreme circumstances, however, the referee will use reaction checks or morale checks to determine how a retainer will behave.
When required, reaction and morale checks are made by the referee with a throw of two six-sided dice and are adjusted for loyalty. A high result indicates a positive reaction or good morale and a low result indicates a negative reaction or poor morale.
Retainers will obey orders to the best of their ability so long as their morale holds. A poor morale check can result in refusal to perform; exactly how this plays out is left to the referee’s discretion. It could result in dissension, refusal to undertake a task or join combat, withdrawal from combat, desertion, surrender to the enemy, complete rout, and so on.
Excepting unintelligent monsters (who never check morale) most enemies are also subject to failures of morale.
Player characters possess arms, armor, and equipment from the outset and—if they are fortunate—can accumulate considerable wealth during their adventures. Thus a character is permitted to name an heir to his estate should he meet an untimely end. If he should mysteriously vanish “death” can be declared after 30 days of unexplained absence.
Once death has been established all worldly possessions are passed to the designated heir, if there is one, or else to the realm if there is not. Should there be an heir he takes possession of all properties, goods, and valuables that belonged to the departed less a 10% inheritance tax which is payable to the realm. The realm may also enforce payment of a bond to any hirelings and retainers, guaranteeing the return of their possessions and any accrued pay to their families.
Should the character unexpectedly return to reclaim his estate the inheritance tax will be payable again. The referee will adjudicate the reaction of the disinherited heir who might intrigue to retain control of the estate. In any case, his loyalty will suffer a 0 to −5 adjustment (one six-sided die −1) if he is kept on as part of the character’s household or retinue.
While dwelling in a village, town, or city a character must pay upkeep for himself and his entourage. At its simplest the cost of upkeep for middling quarters and fare is 1 gp per month per 100 experience points the character has.
A character who desires fine cuisine and luxurious accommodation must consent to pay higher costs, varying with extravagance. Alternatively, the referee may require players to itemize individual expenses.
The cost of upkeep is payable only so long as the character maintains urban living arrangements. Living off the land incurs no costs and thus payments cease when the character journeys to a wilderness area. When he builds a stronghold of his own he may collect taxes from its inhabitants to help cover his costs.
Each player begins with 30-180 gold pieces to furnish his character with equipment appropriate to his profession and possible adventures.
Note that 20 coins of any type weigh one pound.
The referee can extrapolate prices for other items from those given.
Rations will feed one person for one week. Iron rations are preserved and will keep even in poor environs (including dungeons) where standard rations would spoil.
Range categories are applicable to accurate shooting at individual targets at the dungeon combat scale (1" to 10ft).
At the wilderness combat scale (1" to 10yd) range categories are primarily for shooting at bodies of troops or similarly sized targets.
A magic-user or cleric can memorize a number of spells each day according to his experience level. He must be fresh and rested and have access to the appropriate spell books to memorize any spell therein. Bereft of his spell books he cannot memorize any spells!
A memorized spell can be cast at any time but once it has been cast it is erased from memory. Once erased a spell cannot be cast again until it is memorized the following day. Notwithstanding this limitation, nothing prevents a magic-user or cleric from memorizing the same spell several times.
In order to invoke a spell the caster must be free to concentrate, move his arms and hands, speak aloud, and see the target. To do so during combat the player must declare his intent at the beginning of the turn. Casting a spell requires the full turn so no other action may be attempted. Furthermore, if the caster is struck by any missile, blow, or spell before his own invocation is completed it will be foiled and erased from memory without being triggered. The referee will adjudicate whether other interruptions are sufficient to foil a spell.
A magic-user or cleric can cast a spell of any spell level directly from a scroll. Unless the scroll was penned by his own hand a magic-user must employ a read magic spell before he can read a spell scroll. Thereafter, either class can read a spell scroll without memorizing the spell in advance. Casting a spell from a scroll invokes the magic at the minimum caster level necessary to memorize the spell and simultaneously erases the spell from the scroll.
If a cleric spell is noted as reversible, only a chaotic anti-cleric can use the reverse form and only a lawful cleric can use the proper form. If a magic-user spell is noted as reversible, the reverse form is a separate spell which can be memorized, cast, and written to a scroll exactly as per any other spell.
Magic-users and clerics begin play with a book of 1st level spells but must find, buy, or research higher level spell books thereafter.
Adventuring is a dangerous business so a spell caster may wish to construct a duplicate spell book to carry without risk to his primary resource. Should a spell book be lost, damaged, or destroyed in any event it can be replaced at a cost. A book of 1st level spells costs 2,000 gp, a book of 2nd level spells costs 4,000 gp, a book of 3rd level spells costs 8,000 gp, and so on.
Magic-users and clerics can copy spells which they can memorize onto scrolls. It takes one week to create any spell scroll and costs 100 gp per spell level. Thus, a 4th level spell scroll takes one week to construct at a cost of 400 gp. A spell scroll can be invoked only once and is at risk of being ruined by rain, fire, and other dungeon hazards.
Clerics and magic-users can research new spells for their repertoires. The spell level of a new spell cannot exceed that which the researcher is able to memorize. Otherwise, the player can contrive whatever spell he desires, remembering that the referee will determine what is allowable and the spell level of the new magic.
Success is a matter of time and investment. One week and 2,000 gp are required for a 1st level spell. Costs double and time is extended by one week at each successively higher spell level. Thus, a 2nd level spell requires two weeks and 4,000 gp, a 3rd level spell requires three weeks and 8,000 gp, a 4th level spell requires four weeks and 16,000 gp and so on.
Spells and other magical effects will usually combine safely with one another. However, multiple enchantments with the same effect are not cumulative; only the single, most powerful effect applies.
(reversible, affects: 1 creature, range: touch) The cleric can restore 2-7 lost hit points to any one creature (including himself) after one turn of aid. Hit points cannot be raised beyond the creature’s normal total. The reverse, cause light wounds, will cause 2-7 hit points of damage at a touch, possibly requiring an attack roll to touch an unwilling target.
(affects: self, duration: 6 turns, range: 12") The cleric can sense the presence of any enchanted, conjured, supernatural, or undead creature within range, as well as any curse or malicious enchantment upon an object or place.
(affects: self, duration: 2 turns, range: 6") The cleric can sense the presence of any enchantment on a person, place, or object within range and sight.
(reversible, affects: 3" diameter, duration: 6 turns + 1 turn/level, range: 12") Causes an object or volume of space to be lit as if by torchlight, illuminating a 3" diameter. The reverse, darkness, creates a 3" diameter sphere of darkness that is impenetrable even to creatures that see in the dark and to the darkvision spell, but not to the true seeing spell.
(reversible, affects: self, duration: 12 turns) This spell prevents any enchanted or conjured creature from contacting the cleric. Furthermore, attacks made against the cleric by other chaotic types will be at −2 to hit and the cleric will make saving throws at +2. The reverse, protection from good, applies equally to enchanted or conjured creatures but protects against lawful rather than chaotic types.
(reversible, duration: permanent, range: 1") Makes spoiled, poisoned, or contaminated food, drink, or Unholy water whole and suitable for consumption. Enough food for one dozen men or two weeks worth of rations are affected. The reverse, putrefy food and drink, will instead spoil food, drink, and Holy water.
(reversible, affects: 6" diameter, duration: 6 turns, range: 6") The cleric bestows a +1 morale bonus and a +1 benefit to attack rolls upon all allies within 3" who are not already in combat. The reverse, bane, imposes equivalent penalties upon foes.
(reversible, affects: 24" diameter, duration: permanent, range: 12") Causes an object or volume of space to be lit as if by sunlight. Monsters affected by sunlight are dazzled but otherwise unharmed. Continuous light is permanent unless dispelled. The reverse, continuous darkness, creates a permanent, 24" diameter sphere of darkness that is impenetrable even to creatures that see in the dark and to the darkvision spell, but not to the true seeing spell.
(affects: self, duration: 2 turns, range: 3") The cleric can sense any magical or mechanical trap within sight and range. No insight as to how the trap might be deactivated is conveyed.
(affects: 1 or 1-4 persons, duration: 9 turns, range: 18") 1-4 man-types are held immobile if they fail a saving throw versus paralysis. If a single man-type is targeted his saving throw is penalized by −2.
(reversible, affects: 1 creature, duration: permanent, range: touch) Cures the subject of all natural diseases or one supernatural disease such as mummy rot or lycanthropy. The reverse, cause disease, infects the subject with any disease known to the anti-cleric at a touch, possibly requiring an attack roll to touch an unwilling subject.
(affects: self, duration: 6 turns, range: 3") The cleric can communicate with ordinary animals, including giant-sized sorts, receiving answers to questions subject to a reaction check. The animals will not attack the cleric for the duration, regardless of their reaction, but will perform a favor or service only if the cleric secures a positive (or better) reaction.
(reversible, affects: 1" radius, duration: 12 turns) As per the protection from evil spell, except that the protection extends to a 1" radius around the cleric.
(reversible, affects: 1 creature, range: touch) The cleric can restore 4-14 lost hit points to any one creature (including himself) after one turn of aid. Hit points cannot be raised beyond the creature’s normal total. The reverse, cause serious wounds, will cause 4-14 hit points of damage at a touch, possibly requiring an attack roll to touch an unwilling target.
(reversible, affects: 4-48 undead, duration: 7-12 turns, range: 12") Temporarily paralyzes skeletons and zombies with no saving throw allowed. 2-12 undead are enervated for every three whole levels the cleric has. Thus a 6th level cleric can enervate 4-24 undead, a 9th level cleric can enervate 6-36 undead, and a 12th level cleric can enervate 8-48 undead. The reverse, animate dead, causes nearby bones or bodies to rise as half as many undead skeletons or zombies under the anti-cleric’s command. They will obey until destroyed in combat, by a dispel magic, or by a dispel evil spell.
(affects: self, duration: 2 turns, range: 9" + 1"/level) The cleric can sense the direction to a well known or clearly visualized object within range. If more than one object of the visualized sort is in range only the nearest is located. A specific unique object can only be sought by this spell if the cleric has previously observed the object firsthand.
(reversible, affects: 1 curse, duration: permanent, range: touch) Lifts one curse from a creature or object, causing the latter to become a normal, unenchanted item of its type. The reverse, bestow curse, burdens the subject with any curse so named by the anti-cleric. Note that a lawful cleric must specify only lawful curses.
(affects: self, duration: special, range: 3") An echo of life is bestowed upon the remains of a deceased creature within range so that it can answer 1-6 questions asked by the cleric, subject to a usual reaction check. This spell has no effect if the remains have been deceased longer than one week per level of the cleric.
(affects: 1 body of water, duration: 12 turns, range: 24") The cleric causes the water level of a river or similar body of water to immediately fall to half its natural depth within 24" of himself, allowing a waterway to be forded, or to rise to half its depth again, precipitating a flash flooding.
(reversible, affects: special, range: 1") Creates wholesome food and drink sufficient to feed three men (or one horse or mule) for each of the cleric’s experience levels. The reverse, destroy food and drink, turns a like amount of food and drink to ash.
(reversible, affects: 1 creature, range: touch) The cleric can restore 6-21 lost hit points to any one creature (including himself) after one turn of aid. Hit points cannot be raised beyond the creature’s normal total. The reverse, cause critical wounds, will cause 6-21 hit points of damage at a touch, possibly requiring an attack roll to touch an unwilling target.
(affects: 1 or 1-4 creatures, duration: 6 turns + 1 turn/level, range: 12") 1-4 creatures are held immobile if they fail a saving throw versus paralysis. If a single creature is targeted its saving throw is penalized by −2.
(reversible, affects: 1 poison, duration: permanent, range: 1") A glass of poisoned wine, a venomous monster, an envenomed weapon, or any other poison is rendered non-toxic but this spell will not reverse the effect of a poisoning that has already occurred. The reverse, poison, will cause any food or drink to become deadly poison or any object or creature to become venomous.
(affects: self, duration: 6 turns, range: 3") The cleric can communicate with ordinary plants and supernatural plant types. He can receive answers to questions subject to a reaction check. The plants will not attack the cleric for the duration, regardless of their reaction, but will perform a favor or service only if the cleric secures a positive (or better) reaction.
(affects: self, duration: special) The cleric seeks divinely given knowledge. The Gods, or their agents, will entertain 1-6 questions with a simple “yes” or “no” answer which will be absolute. Use of this spell is limited to once per adventure, or even more infrequently, for the Gods dislike frequent interruptions. However, on the most Holy day of the year three six-sided dice are thrown with the highest result being the number of questions that will be answered.
(reversible, affects: 1 enchantment, duration: permanent, range: 3") Immediately dismisses all enchanted or conjured creatures and curses or enchantments of a malign sort within 3". Animated dead are destroyed while conjured insect plagues, djinn, efreet, elementals, and invisible stalkers are sent back to their origin. All curses and malign enchantments within 3" are affected as if by a dispel magic. The reverse, dispel good, functions against enchanted or conjured creatures and enchantments of the benign sort.
(affects: 40" diameter, duration: 1 day, range: 48") Conjures a vast, 4" deep swarm of crawling, creeping, and flying insects which moves at 6" in a direction indicated by the cleric or remains stationary. The swarm obscures vision, impedes movement, and devours all organic material including crops. Smoke, fire, or extreme cold will temporarily delay or divert the swarm but not destroy it. Normal-types will automatically flee but those caught in the plague will suffer innumerable bites and stings amounting to 1 point of damage per combat turn, regardless of armor. Misuse of this spell will cause a cleric to immediately become an anti-cleric.
(affects: 1 subject, duration: special, range: 3") The subject is compelled to perform a quest specified by the cleric. Upon bestowing a quest the cleric also specifies a curse. Should the subject dally or deviate from his quest he will be afflicted by the curse until he resumes the quest. Only the completion of the quest or a successful dispel evil (or dispel good) will end this spell. Note that a lawful cleric must specify only lawful quests and curses.
(reversible, affects: 1 person, duration: permanent, range: touch) Restores life to a deceased man-type who has not been dead any longer than one day per level of the cleric. Rising from the dead is a great ordeal and the subject must make a successful shock survival check in order to be raised. Should this check succeed he returns to life but requires two weeks of recuperation. The reverse, finger of death, causes a baleful ray to issue from the anti-cleric’s pointed finger to any man-type within sight and 12" range. If the target makes a successful saving throw versus wands the effect is negated; otherwise, he dies instantly.
(affects: self, duration: 11-16 turns) The cleric sees all things as they actually are. Blindness and darkness (even the magical sort) are defeated. Traps, secret doors, invisible creatures, and hidden object are plainly seen. Illusions and charms are immediately discerned as is the true nature of any polymorphed, petrified, or transmuted creature or object.
(affects: self, duration: 6 turns + 1 turn/level) The magic-user can assume the appearance of any creature of the same general size and shape as himself. He could appear to be a town guard, a beautiful maiden, or a gnoll but not a horse or a wyvern.
(affects: 1 person, duration: special, range: 12") Brings a single man-type who fails to save versus spells completely under the influence of the magic-user. Gross abuse or negligence allows the man-type another saving throw; otherwise, the charm lasts until it is lifted by the magic-user or dispelled.
(affects: 12" arc, duration: 2-12 turns) 2-7 seeing creatures are rendered unconscious by a dazzling glare of clashing colors. Those nearest to the magic-user are always affected first, sheltering those farther back. Heroic-types are allowed a saving throw versus spells to negate the effect and superheroic-types are unaffected.
(affects: self, duration: special) Enables the magic-user to read any language, cipher, message, map, or other written instruction excepting magical spells or command words. The spell lasts long enough to read two short writings or one longer one, but no power to speak or listen is conferred.
(affects: self, duration: 2 turns, range: 6") The magic-user can sense the presence of any enchantment on a person, place, or object within range and sight.
(affects: 6" wall, duration: special, range: 12"): Conjures a bank of thick fog which persists for as long as the magic-user concentrates on maintaining it. The fog wall is 20ft thick and up to 6" long and 20ft high (or any equivalent dimensions) and is straight or curved as the magic-user desires. It is impenetrable to sight.
(affects: self, duration: 6 turns) The magic-user’s eyes become mirrored granting him immunity to dazzling and gaze attacks without impairing his sight. The gaze attacks of basilisks, medusae, and vampires, the mirror of life trapping, and the color spray spell are all defeated. Moreover, any gaze attack attempted within 3" will be reflected back at the attacker exactly as if they had looked into a mirror.
(affects: 1 portal, duration: 2-12 turns, range: 1") Holds one door, gate, window, shutter, or other portal securely fast exactly as though it were locked. The portal can then be opened only by a magic-using creature with at least 7 hit dice, a knock spell, a dispel magic, or a resourceful thief (if these are used).
(affects: 3" diameter, duration: 6 turns + 1 turn/level, range: 12") Causes an object or volume of space to be lit as if by torchlight, illuminating a 3" diameter.
(affects: self, duration: 6 turns) This spell prevents any enchanted or conjured creature from contacting the magic-user. Furthermore, attacks made against the magic-user by other chaotic types will be at −2 to hit and the magic-user will make saving throws at +2.
(affects: self, duration: special) Enables the magic-user to decipher spells on scrolls or in spell books, or magical inscriptions or command words on other objects. The spell lasts long enough to comprehend two short writings or one longer one. Spells written by other magic-users are incomprehensible without the use of this spell.
(affects: 1 or 4-14 creatures, duration: 3-18 turns, range: 24") Causes 4-14 normal-types or 1 heroic-type with up to 4+1 hit dice to fall into a fitful slumber. The magic is indiscriminate and must affect the indicated number of creatures beginning with those nearest the target. The magic affects only creatures that normally sleep but no saving throw is allowed.
(affects: 24" diameter, duration: permanent, range: 12") Causes an object or volume of space to be lit as if by torchlight, illuminating a 24" diameter. Continuous light is permanent unless dispelled.
(affects: 1 creature, duration: 6 turns + 1 turn/level, range: touch) The subject can see up to 6" in darkness.
(affects: self, duration: 6 turns, range: 1"/level) The magic-user can plainly see invisible, hidden, ghostly, or otherwise transparent creatures and objects within range and line of sight.
(affects: 1 target, duration: special, range: 24") One object or creature becomes invisible. If the subject takes overtly hostile action the spell is ended immediately; otherwise, it lasts indefinitely. Note that fighters of 8th level and above will sense invisible opponents within 3" even without seeing them.
(affects: portals, range: 6") Opens all known and unlocked doors, windows, gates, and other portals within range, or exactly one such portal which is known to exist but is stuck, barred, locked, or magically held.
(affects: self, duration: 6 turns + 1 turn/level) The magic-user levitates up or down as desired at a rate of 6". The spell will not move him laterally, although he might still clamber along a cliff face or ceiling with his hands at a rate of 3".
(affects: self, duration: 2 turns, range: 6" + 1"/level) The magic-user can sense the direction to a well known or clearly visualized object within range. If more than one object of the visualized sort is in range only the nearest is located. A specific unique object can only be sought by this spell if the magic-user has previously observed the object firsthand.
(affects: 3" diameter, duration: concentration, range: 24") Creates a convincing, animated phantasm that persists for as long as the magic-user continues to concentrate on controlling it. A saving throw versus spells is allowed each turn that someone doubts the phantasm’s veracity. A successful saving throw enables them to end the phantasm by purposefully touching it. Otherwise, the phantasm is considered “real” for all purposes including causing real damage.
(affects: 1 creature, duration: 12 turns, range: 3") The subject is granted invulnerability to ordinary missiles including spears, stones, arrows, and bolts. This protection does not extend to artillery shot, boulders hurled by giants, ordinary missiles fired by heroic-types, or enchanted missiles of any sort.
(affects: self, duration: 12 turns, range: 6") The magic-user concentrates on a specific direction for one turn in order to sense what creatures are within range in that direction. Having sensed creatures, the magic-user can perceive the surface thoughts of any one creature at a time, listening in for as long as desired. He can hop from creature to creature as desired, turn by turn, unless the magic is obstructed by lead or any rock thicker than 20ft.
(affects: 2" diameter or 3"×1", duration: permanent, range: 3") Fills the targeted area to 10ft depth with strong, sticky, inflammable fibers. Creatures at the edge are allowed a saving throw versus breath weapon to avoid entanglement but those that are wholly surrounded cannot avoid it. Giants and similarly powerful creatures can tear through the web in a single turn, as can a flaming sword cut through its fibers. Ogres, trolls, and men with 18 strength can tear through it in two turns. Normal men require four turns of toil to tear through the web while lesser creatures will be held fast.
(affects: 1 portal, duration: permanent, range: 1") As per a hold portal spell except that a witch lock lasts indefinitely and can be placed on anything that can be opened including chests, draws, wardrobes, flasks, books, and portals. A knock spell or the magic-user who created the witch lock can bypass it without ending the spell, as can any other magic-user at least three levels higher than the caster.
(affects: 1" radius, duration: special, range: 24") All creatures within 1" of the magic-user, or any point within sight and range, are affected as per the invisibility spell. The spell does not enable affected creatures to see one another.
(affects: 1" radius, duration: 12 turns) As per the protection from evil spell except that the protection extends to a 1" radius about the magic-user.
(affects: self, duration: 12 turns, range: 6") The magic-user can see in his mind’s eye anywhere he desires within range except that the spell is obstructed by lead or any rock thicker than 20ft.
(affects: 1 enchantment, duration: permanent, range: 12") Ends any ongoing spell that was begun by a caster of equal or lower level. If the ongoing spell was begun by a higher level caster there is a 10% chance for each level he has over and above the magic-user’s level that the dispel magic will fail. Instantaneous spells cannot be dispelled, nor will this spell affect magic items.
(affects: 2" radius, duration: instantaneous, range: 24") The magic-user points his finger at a target anywhere within range and sight and causes a fiery explosion to fill a 2" radius, or an equivalent volume of available space (twelve 10ft cubes on a typical dungeon map). Everyone caught within the blast suffers 1-6 hit points of damage per level of the magic-user to a maximum of 10-60 hit points. A successful saving throw versus breath weapon will reduce this damage by half.
(affects: self, duration: 1-6 turns + 1 turn/level) Enables the magic-user to fly at a movement rate up to 12". The spell duration is determined secretly by the referee.
(affects: 4-24 creatures, duration: 3 turns, range: 24") 4-24 creatures within a 4" diameter are quickened. Affected creatures will move at double pace and, against any non-quickened creature, will always gain initiative and have a +2 to hit adjustment. Those nearest to the target are always affected first. At the end of the spell each affected creature must save versus petrification or else age one year. Haste counters slow and vice versa.
(affects: 1 or 1-4 persons, duration: 1-6 turns + 1 turn/level, range: 12") 1-4 man-types are held immobile if they fail a saving throw versus paralysis. If a single man-type is targeted his saving throw is penalized by −2.
(affects: 6", duration: instantaneous, range: 18") Unleashes a stroke of lightning at any target in range and sight. It passes directly through creatures but reflects off hard surfaces, possibly even doubling back, so that it is always 6" long; thus the maximum reach of this spell is up to 24". Everyone passed through suffers 1-6 hit points damage per level of the magic-user to a maximum of 10-60 hit points. A successful saving throw versus wands will reduce this damage by half.
(affects: 30"×30" or 33" diameter, duration: permanent, range: 12") Causes existing vegetation within a 33" diameter (or equivalent area) to become absurdly overgrown and virtually impassable. The growth lasts until it is hacked or burned away or until it is dispelled.
(affects: 4-24 creatures, duration: 3 turns, range: 24") 4-24 creatures within a 4" diameter are slowed. Affected creatures will move at half pace and, against any non-slowed creature, will always lose initiative and have a −2 to hit adjustment. Those nearest to the target are always affected first. Slow counters haste and vice versa.
(affects: 1 creature, duration: 12 turns, range: 3") The targeted creature is empowered to breathe normally under water. No buoyancy or ability to swim is conferred.
(affects: 1-6 animals, duration: 12 turns, range: 12") Causes 1-6 ordinary animals within range and sight to grow to giant size, assuming all of the game statistics of the giant sort. If no such statistics are given assume that size and hit dice are doubled. The disposition of the animals toward the magic-user is unaffected by this spell.
(affects: 2-24 dead, duration: permanent, range: 3") Causes nearby bones or bodies to rise as undead skeletons or zombies under the magic-user’s command. 1-6 undead are animated for every three whole levels the magic-user has. Thus a 7th or 8th level magic-user can animate 2-12 undead, a 9th, 10th or 11th level magic-user can animate 3-18 undead, and a 12th level magic-user can animate 4-24 undead. They will obey until destroyed in combat, by a dispel magic, or a dispel evil spell.
(affects: 1 or 3-18 creatures, duration: special, range: 12") Brings 3-18 normal-types or a single heroic/superheroic-type that fails to save versus spells completely under the influence of the magic-user. Gross abuse or negligence allows the monster (or monsters) an additional saving throw; otherwise, the charm lasts until it is lifted by the magic-user or is dispelled.
(affects: 3-18 creatures, duration: 12 turns, range: 12") Causes confusion in 3-18 creatures. The magic is indiscriminate and must affect the indicated number of creatures beginning with those nearest to the target. Heroic/superheroic-types are allowed a saving throw versus spells to negate the effect; otherwise, each individual’s behavior is determined randomly each turn.
(affects: 1 subject, duration: instantaneous, range: 1") The magic-user or other subject steps from his present location to any destination within 36" specified by distance and direction.
(affects: 6" arc, duration: 6 turns, range: 6") Sends a wave of panic out in an arc before the magic-user to 6" range. All normal-types in the area of effect will immediately flee for six turns. Heroic-types are allowed a saving throw versus spells to negate the effect.
(affects: 160" diameter, duration: special, range: 24") Creates an illusionary terrain that conceals the underlying geography and is convincing in every way from a distance. The hallucination will not stand up to close inspection, however, and can be seen through automatically by any intelligent being who examines it carefully from within.
(affects: self, duration: 6 turns + 1 turn/level) Transforms the magic-user into any creature he desires. He assumes the size, strength, mobility, armor class, and physical attack and damage capabilities of his new form, excluding supernatural abilities such as breath weapons, gaze attacks, and spell casting. He retains his own intelligence, hit points, saving throws, and ability to speak and cast spells.
(affects: 1 curse, duration: permanent, range: touch) Lifts one curse from a creature or object causing the latter to become a normal, unenchanted item of its type.
(affects: 6" wall, duration: concentration, range: 6") Conjures a blazing curtain of fire which persists for as long as the magic-user concentrates upon maintaining it. The wall of fire is 5ft thick and up to 6" long and 20ft high (or any equivalent dimensions). It can be straight or curved as the magic-user desires, including a 10ft high 4" diameter circle. Creatures of fire are unaffected except by its opaqueness. The wall is otherwise impenetrable to normal-types while heroic/superheroic-types suffer 1-6 hit points of damage for bursting through. Creatures of cold and undead instead suffer 2-12 hit points. A wall of fire and a white dragon’s breath (or blast from a wand of ice) will negate one another, resulting in a double-sized fog wall.
(affects: 6" wall, duration: permanent, range: 12") Conjures a steaming cold bulkhead of hard pack ice. The wall of ice is 5ft thick and up to 6" long and 20ft high (or any equivalent dimensions). It can be straight or curved as the magic-user desires, including a 10ft high 4" diameter circle. A wall of ice is opaque and is impenetrable to normal-types. Heroic/superheroic-types can attempt to crash through a wall of ice as they might break down doors. Any such attempt causes 1-6 hit points of damage except to creatures of cold (who are unharmed) and creatures of fire who instead suffer 2-12 hit points. A wall of ice and a red dragon’s breath (or fireball) will negate one another, resulting in a double-sized fog wall.
(affects: self, duration: 6 turns, range: 1") Conjures an invisible, floating eye that flies at a rate of 12" per turn to anywhere the magic-user desires within 24". The magic-user can see in his mind’s eye everything that the witch eye sees.
(affects: 1 creature, duration: permanent, range: 6") Transforms a subject within range into any creature the magic-user desires. The subject must immediately make a shock survival check with failure resulting in death. Otherwise, he assumes the size, strength, mobility, armor class, and physical attack and damage capabilities of the new form including supernatural abilities such as breath weapons and gaze attacks, but excluding spell casting. He retains his own intelligence, hit points, saving throws, and ability to speak and cast spells. The transformation is permanent until dispelled.
(affects: 3" diameter, duration: 6 turns, range: 1") Conjures a 3" diameter bank of dense, poisonous fog which rolls along the ground at a rate of 3" either with the wind or away from the magic-user. The vapors are heavier than air and will sink to the lowest lay of the land, pouring down sinkholes or openings for example. Any normal-type that breathes the fog is immediately slain. Heroic-types are allowed a saving throw versus poison to avoid death and superheroic-types are unaffected.
(affects: self, duration: special) The magic-user seeks knowledge from powerful beings on other planes of existence. These will answer the magic-user’s questions with a “yes” or “no” answer which will be absolute. 1-6 questions (determined secretly by the referee) will be entertained safely. For each additional question asked the magic-user must make a successful saving throw versus spells or be feebleminded for 1-6 weeks.
(affects: 1 creature, duration: permanent, range: 24") One intelligent creature within range and sight must save versus spells at −4 or become a mental invalid. A feebleminded creature can neither read, write, figure, communicate in any coherent fashion, nor cast spells or use command words. The spell lasts until it is canceled by a dispel magic.
(affects: 1 or 1-4 creatures, duration: 6 turns + 1 turn/level, range: 12") 1-4 creatures are held immobile if they fail a saving throw versus paralysis. If a single creature is targeted its saving throw is penalized by −2.
(affects: 1 elemental, duration: special, range: 24") Conjures one earth, air, fire, or water elemental of the 16 hit dice sort. The elemental does the magic-user’s will until it is destroyed in combat or is dismissed by the magic-user or a dispel evil. The magic-user may move at half rate but controlling the elemental requires the remainder of his concentration. If he should lose concentration (by being hit, for example) he can no longer dismiss the elemental and it will attack him immediately. No more than one elemental of each type can be conjured per day.
(affects: self, duration: special, range: 3") The magic-user sends his spirit into a gem, crystal, or similar vessel within 3", leaving his own body helpless. From there the magic-user can attempt to possess any creature that approaches within 12". He can automatically repossess his own body but others are allowed a saving throw versus spells. Should they fail this saving throw the magic-user possesses them and assumes full control of their physical faculties while retaining his own intellect. The magic-user’s spirit can return to the magic jar at any time and automatically does so if ever the possessed body is slain. If his own body has died in the meanwhile he is trapped in the magic jar until another body can be possessed. If the magic jar is destroyed while the magic-user’s spirit is resident, he is utterly annihilated and cannot be raised or reincarnated.
(affects: 1" tunnel, duration: 3 turns, range: 3") Opens a tunnel up to 5ft in diameter and 1" deep through any wall—including solid rock but excluding solid iron.
(affects: 20lb/level, duration: 6 turns, range: 12") Any object or objects (including living things) within sight and range whose total mass does not exceed 20lb per level of the magic-user can be moved by thought alone. Objects can be moved from anywhere within range to anywhere else within range in a single turn.
(affects: 1 subject, duration: instantaneous, range: touch) Instantly transports the magic-user (or other subject) from place to place regardless of distance, possibly requiring an attack roll to touch an unwilling subject. The magic-user must be very familiar with the destination or risk an error. If he is only passingly familiar with the destination an error will occur with a throw of 1 on a six-sided die. If he has only seen the destination once an error will occur with a throw of 1-2. If he has never seen the destination an error will occur with a throw of 1-3. When an error occurs the subject will arrive either 10-60ft too high or too low (50% chance of either). Teleporting into mid-air results in a fall; teleporting into solid earth results in death.
(reversible, affects: 30"×30" or 33" diameter, duration: 3-18 days, range: 12") Transmutes a large area of rock or earth into a 10ft deep mud slough, undermining structures, drowning heavy creatures, and otherwise reducing movement to 3". The mud will dry after 3-18 days leaving the rock or earth in its former state. Transmute rock to mud can be canceled immediately by a transmute mud to rock spell and vice versa.
(affects: 6" wall, duration: permanent, range: 6") Conjures an imposing bulkhead of solid stone 5ft thick and up to 6" long and 20ft high (or any equivalent dimensions). It can be plain or featured and straight or curved, as the magic-user desires, including a 10ft high 4" diameter circle. It is impenetrable to all but the ordinary means of tunneling or battery, except that it can be dismissed by a dispel magic.
(affects: self, duration: 12 turns) An invisible barrier surrounds the magic-user so that no spell or spell-like effect (including charms and gaze attacks) may pass in either direction for the duration. It is impervious even to dispel magic.
(affects: 1 body of water, duration: 12 turns, range: 24") The magic-user causes the water level of a river or similar body of water within 24" of himself to immediately fall to half its natural depth (allowing a waterway to be forded) or to rise to half its depth again (precipitating a flash flooding).
(affects: 1 geographic region, duration: permanent) Invokes a single desired weather condition in the local geographical region the magic-user is in. The weather condition may be extreme but must be naturally occurring. The weather will take 1-6 turns to change but will then last until dispelled.
(affects: 1 target, range: 6") A deadly beam of darkness irrevocably disintegrates any single non-magical object or creature. Creatures are allowed a saving throw versus wands to avoid the beam and negate the effect; otherwise, any inanimate matter up to 1" cube (or any equivalent volume) can be instantaneously disintegrated.
(affects: 1 subject, duration: special, range: 3") The subject is compelled to perform a quest specified by the magic-user. Should the subject dally or deviate from his quest he will lose 1-6 points of strength each day until he either dies or resumes the quest. Only the completion of the quest or a successful dispel evil (or dispel good) will end this spell.
(affects: 1 stalker, duration: special, range 1") Conjures an invisible stalker from the null-dimensions which the magic-user can instruct to carry out some task. The invisible stalker will perform this mission single-mindedly until the task is completed, it is destroyed in combat, or is dismissed by a dispel evil. It will resent this servitude, however, and if after any day of service the referee throws a 12 on two six-sided dice the invisible stalker will subvert the magic-user’s intent by observing his orders absolutely literally to the letter. If ordered to guard a treasure hoard, for example, it might take the hoard to its home dimension and guard it there.
(affects: 1 body of earth, duration: 6 turns, range: 24") Above ground this spell causes a hill, ridge, bluff, or similar body of earth within range and sight to be moved. Underground it moves a cavern, chamber, passageway, or similar feature through the ground, or else moves some protuberance of earth within a large cavern. The body of earth is moved at a gentle rate of 6". Creatures, vegetation, and structures can be carried along unharmed or structures can be undermined, at the referee’s discretion. Alternatively, a clay golem or earth elemental can be driven back 12" suffering 6-36 damage. Note that earth is moved but not reshaped.
(affects: 1 image, duration: 6 turns, range: 24") Projects a quasi-real image of the magic-user anywhere within range and sight. The image is indistinguishable from the magic-user and is completely under his control. He knows everything his image senses and can direct it to perform any action he himself could perform including casting spells. The image is impervious to harm except that a successful dispel magic will end its existence. Spells originating from the image are in actuality cast by the magic-user and are erased from his memory as usual.
(affects: 1 creature, duration: permanent, range: touch) Restores a slain character to life in another body so long as he has not been dead any longer than one day per level of the magic-user. Rising from the dead is a great ordeal and the subject must make a successful shock survival check in order to reincarnate. Should this prove successful his body is transformed (according to his alignment) and he awakes without need for recuperation.
The reincarnated character retains his former intelligence, wisdom, and memories but otherwise assumes all faculties of his new form. Any former spell casting ability is lost. If a player character class or race is indicated throw a six-sided die to determine the character’s new level. Elves may split their levels between the fighting and magic-using (and thieving, if thieves are used) classes. Halflings will have only half as many levels as indicated. No character can advance in level by reincarnation in any case.
(affects: 4-24 creatures, range: 24") Instantly slays 4-24 creatures within a 7" diameter area. The spell is indiscriminate and must affect the indicated number of creatures beginning with those nearest to the target. No saving throw is allowed but superheroic-types are unaffected.
(reversible, affects: 1 creature, duration: permanent, range: 12") Restores one petrified creature (and any possessions) to living flesh. Returning to the flesh is a great ordeal and the subject must make a successful shock survival check or else be slain. The reverse, flesh to stone, turns one living creature (and any possessions carried) to stone. A successful saving throw versus petrification will negate the effect.
(affects: 6" wall, duration: permanent, range: 6") Conjures a daunting bulkhead of solid iron 1ft thick and up to 6" long and 20ft high (or any equivalent dimensions). It can be plain or featured and straight or curved, as the magic-user desires, including a 10ft high 4" diameter circle. It is impervious to spells such as sixth sense, passwall, and transmute rock to mud and is largely impenetrable to ordinary means of battery or attack. It can be dismissed by a successful dispel magic.
The referee should be comfortable with these rules and the mechanics of play, but even then a new campaign requires some preparation before play can start. The referee begins by envisaging a fantasy world in which his new campaign will take place. He need not etch out the entire history of the world immediately; the merest hint of what the world might promise is sufficient at this early stage. Next, he requires the outline of a continent or similar region for the players to explore. Finally, he requires a detailed map of a town or village and the countryside in which play will begin.
The referee should familiarize himself with the geography, water sources, and settlements (human and otherwise) near to the start of play, noting any particular detail of each. Using broad strokes rather than exacting detail will save time and allow room for the players to influence the world, encouraging a dynamic campaign that feels “alive”.
After establishing the campaign world the referee should map several underworld dungeons and stock these with monsters, treasures, and magical items. Once these dungeons are created the referee should mark them on his map somewhere in the vicinity of the start of play. The campaign is then ready and the players can begin exploring the fantasy milieu in which they find themselves.
In addition to those supplies recommended for players the referee should furnish himself with the following:
The referee begins by creating a map of the world on a sheet of hex paper. This map need not be extensive as exploration of the unknown is a desired element of the campaign. It must, however, remain unknown to the players.
Each hex should be 6 miles wide on this map such that an unencumbered man afoot can cover two hexes per day of good hiking and an encumbered man can cover one hex per day.
The referee should note at least one civilized settlement (the village, town, or stronghold where play will begin) near the center of his map. He should then add any immediately surrounding features including other villages, nearby towns, a keep, a ruin, caves, a forest, a swamp, and so on. The referee should name each feature and decide whether it is abandoned or inhabited, and (if so) by whom? Denizens might be ordinary lawful folk, elves, bandits, a knight and his entourage, orcs, trolls, an evil high priest, and so on. Thus the game world begins to take shape.
Play should commence in a (relatively) safe haven such as a town, village, or stronghold. Towns are busy regional centers, home to 1,000-6,000 folk from all walks of life including many itinerants. Villages are quiet, agrarian communities of 100-400 farming folk. Strongholds are occupied by bodies of 30-180 soldiery along with a prominent leader and his supporting entourage. Wherever they begin, players should be able to acquire their starting goods and rumors of possible adventures.
The players might already know some of the campaign’s cultural folklore. Other tales and local legends can be devised by the referee and learned by the players as required.
The arrival or formation of a company of armed adventurers will not go unnoticed and, unless the players take pains to conceal their purpose, rumors will quickly spread. The players may, of course, desire to advertise their presence in order to gain employment.
Obtaining news and rumors is thereafter a matter of visiting local inns and common rooms where a liberal round of drinks worth 10-60 gp will usually get tongues wagging, or where an earnest barkeep might be willing to help for 1-6 gp. Misinformation may be learned at the referee’s discretion.
In time the players might become fearless heroes (or feared anti-heroes). This does not imply that exploitation of the common folk will be without consequence. Unhappy commoners will first seek the protection of the church and their local lords. Failing that they will seek out a hero to fight their cause or, ultimately, rise up as an angry lynch mob to run despots and villains out of town.
Whenever hirelings or retainers are taken on the referee should secretly determine their loyalty score. A hireling or retainer’s loyalty score is determined with a throw of three six-sided dice, then adjusted according to an initial reaction check (−2 to +2), the character’s loyalty adjustment due to charisma (−2 to +4), and whether or not the hireling or retainer is a disinherited relative (0 to −5). The result is noted by the referee, to be referred to whenever subsequent reaction or morale checks are required.
Delving Deeper referees require polyhedral dice of the four-, six-, eight-, ten-, twelve-, and twenty-sided sorts and are assumed to possess these.
Wherever number ranges appear in the text the referee should throw the appropriate number of dice to produce a result within the specified range. For example, a range of 1-6 is generated by throwing a six-sided die, a range of 2-7 is generated by throwing a six-sided die and adding 1 to the result, a range of 2-10 is generated by throwing a six- and a four-sided die and summing the results, and so on.
Common number ranges are given in the table below—the referee can extrapolate other ranges from these examples. A ten-sided die should ideally be a twenty-sided polyhedron marked 0-9 twice, but alternatively can be a ten-sided polyhedron marked 0-9 once (although these are not a platonic solid).
A range of 1-100 can be generated with a throw of two ten-sided dice. The result of the first die is multiplied by ten before the pair is summed. Thus, a throw of 4 and 2 makes 42, a throw of 6 and 0 makes 60, and a throw of 0 and 6 makes 06. A double zero makes 100.
Before the players can explore the labyrinthine underworld the referee must map at least one such dungeon on a sheet of graph paper. A dungeon should have many levels and sub-levels that are interconnected by stairs, trapdoors, chutes, slanting passages, and so on. The referee is advised to begin by drawing a cross section of the entire structure in order to understand the means of egress between the various levels.
It is desirable that there be several dungeon entrances, that there be a number routes between the various levels, and that richer areas be harder to find. Deeper dungeon levels will be more rewarding but also more dangerous, so players should (usually) be allowed to navigate to the desired dungeon level when such routes are known.
A dungeon need not be mapped completely—it may well be vast or even limitless. It should, however, extend as far as the players are likely to explore in their initial delve. Thus, the referee is advised to plan much of the first level and some parts of the second and third levels. Each square of a dungeon level plan should represent 10ft in the dungeon and, like the campaign map, dungeon maps must remain unknown to the players.
Having drawn a cross section and begun mapping of the first few levels, the referee should give the dungeon a name and note at least one entrance to the first dungeon level on his campaign map.
With a dungeon level planned, or substantially so, the referee must distribute monsters, traps, and treasure throughout the maze. The principal treasures should be placed thoughtfully, then random determination used to fill the balance of the level.
The referee should throw two six-sided dice for each unpopulated dungeon location and consult the table of random dungeon locations.
Empty rooms occur frequently and will usually be welcomed even if they are foreboding or completely nondescript. These might be used by the players to rest or regroup, lay ambushes, establish a defensible position, or whatever else the referee allows.
Where Monsters are indicated the referee should consult the random monster tables for the appropriate dungeon level. Note that monsters are not all “meant” to be beatable. Some will be deadly foes and players should learn to flee from these.
Trick and traps can be devious or deadly and can occur almost anywhere.
can alter the appearance of distance, the sense of depth, scale, or direction, or even the flow of time and can frustrate even diligent mapping. A miniaturized Kingdom could be hidden in a bottle or a room or dungeon level could accelerate time one-hundred fold.
will compel a victim to perform some quest, deed, or undesirable action. Possibilities include abandoning all carried treasure in a nearby vault, submitting oneself to an evil high priest, converting a dozen people to the chaotic alignment, or slaying the dragon on the next dungeon level.
can be of anything at all including glamorous treasure, impassible obstacles, irresistible feasts, distraught prisoners, luxurious appointments over squalor, or solid footing over openings. The purpose of these is to deter or delay progress, draw the unwary into a trap, conceal some route or object, or to raise an alarm if meddled with.
includes any room or passage are not aligned perfectly north-south or east-west, but at an oblique angle. The difference should not be immediately noticed by players so as to prevent them from mapping the dungeon too accurately.
are typically 10-40ft deep and either open or covered by trapdoor lids. When passed over a trapdoor will open if the referee throws a 5-6 on a six-sided die and some will automatically snap shut. A pit could be empty or contain a monster. Hitting the bottom will cause 1-6 hit points of damage per 10ft fallen and any monster present will automatically have the advantage of surprise in the following turn. Deep pits could be filled with water causing armored characters to drown. Shallow pits could contain spears or jagged rocks pointing upward that will cause an additional 2-12 hit points of damage should anyone fall upon them. Spears present may or may not be poisoned.
might be moved by player action or by automation, intermittently revealing (or concealing) stairs, passages, or secret vaults or simply preventing the players from returning the way they came. Fresh dungeon sections can be revealed and tried sections hidden. Whole sections can move in a clockwork labyrinth.
can seal the players in by closing portals or by barring exits with heavy weights. Some will then fill with water, green slime, or monsters. Others will carry the players to a lower dungeon level with no possible recourse—or seem to while in fact only turning on the same level.
or halls descend gently and will not be noticed by players (other than dwarfs). These can see the players inadvertently exploring the next deeper dungeon level.
will instantly send an individual or a group elsewhere upon touching a gem, skull, or mirror, or upon passing through a portal. Possible destinations include an identical room with nothing to indicate that teleportation has occurred, a dragon’s lair, a safe haven, another dungeon level, a location thousands of miles away, or even another planet or alternate dimension.
are of many kinds including secret doors, false doors or portals that lead only to dead ends, doors that will open only when a password is spoken or a riddle is solved, doors that can be opened from one side but not the other, portals that can only be found intermittently, or doors whose destination changes each time they are used. The possibilities are endless.
are of various designs including stairs not deep enough to change level, stairs whose destination changes each time they are used, stairs that collapse into a steeply inclined slide which is a one-way route to a monster lair or deeper dungeon level, stairs that can only be found intermittently, and so on.
Monsters guarding treasure are determined with the random monster tables. If the resulting monster has a treasure type and appropriate numbers can be accommodated then the location can be a lair. Otherwise it is not a lair and the treasure includes 400-2,400 sp per dungeon level, 50% chance of 200-1,200 gp per dungeon level, 5% chance per dungeon level of 1-6 gems + 1 gem per dungeon level, 5% chance per dungeon level of 1-6 pieces of jewelry, and 5% chance per two dungeon levels of one item from the Magic Items table.
Where non-player characters are indicated, these are bands of 1-6 player-types of randomly determined class; fighters, magic-users, or clerics (with thieves optionally appearing). Each non-player character has 1-3 experience levels plus as many experience levels as the dungeon level they are encountered on. The whole group will be accompanied by 2-12 mercenaries as well as 1-6 pages, acolytes, or apprentices with up to half as many experience levels as their least experienced superior.
Fighters have a 10% chance per experience level of possessing a magic sword and are half as likely to possess a magic shield or magic armor. Clerics are 2% likely per experience level to possess a magic mace, flail, hammer, or staff and are 5% likely to possess a magic shield or magic armor. Magic-users are 5% likely per experience level to possess a magic wand and are equally likely to possess a magic ring or a miscellaneous magic item. In all cases, check separately for each item.
Traps are frequently set to guard treasures. Where this is indicated the trap can be designed thoughtfully to fit the environs or determined with the tricks and traps table (substituting a deadly trap for any sloping passage or oblique construction). The treasure is as described above.
Unguarded treasures are as above and should be hidden behind secret doors, under trapdoors or floors, up chimneys, made to look plain or invisible by illusions, or locked in safes or strong boxes. In short, the players should face some challenge to gain them.
The referee is advised to keep careful track of time and resources as the players explore the underworld. Exploration is conducted in turns of 10 minute duration with 1" representing 10ft. Thus a movement rate of 12" is reckoned to be 120ft underground with two such moves allowed per turn of cautious progress; listening for noises, watching for ambush, making a map, and so on. If all caution is abandoned (during flight or pursuit, for example) movement is quadrupled but mapping becomes impossible.
for traps, treasure, or secret doors should take a full turn. The referee must adjudicate how long other activities will take including hiding, use of divinations, and circumventing traps.
is essential underground. Torches, lanterns, and magic spells can be used to illuminate the way though the former might be extinguished by sudden gusts of wind. Torches and lanterns will light a 30ft radius and burn for 6 and 24 turns, respectively. Dungeon denizens are assumed to see well in the dark, however, and carrying light will ruin any possibility of surprising them, except by coming through a door.
A dungeon should be troubled by distant creaks, echoes, and moans, and any player may wish to listen for these, or at a door before trying it, as a precautionary measure. In such cases the referee should throw a six-sided die for the player with a result of 6 (or a result of 5-6 for dwarfs, elves, and halflings) indicating that the character identifies any audible sound. Bickering orcs will be rackety, for example, while the undead will be absolutely silent.
in the dungeon are typically stuck and must be forced by strength. Men, dwarfs, and elves can defeat these with a throw of 5-6 on a six-sided die, while halflings and other weaklings would usually require a throw of 6. Bursting through a door in this manner might surprise whomever is on the other side, but any failed attempt will automatically ruin this opportunity and might also attract wandering monsters to the noise. Two characters can simultaneously apply their strength to a single door, but they will be unable to react to whatever is lurking on the other side as they burst through.
Dungeon denizens have the knack of opening each dungeon door and can pass through easily unless a door has been held shut by the characters. Despite the difficulty in opening them, doors will automatically close. Even if a door is wedged open by the characters it will later be found to have been closed if the referee throws a 5-6 on a six-sided die.
and passages will be discovered by any player actively searching if the referee throws a 5-6 (or 3-6 for elves and also thieves if these are used) on a six-sided die. Locating a secret door will reveal the mechanism for opening it, but not activate it. The secret door must be intentionally opened by the character.
One turn of rest is required after a combat or any hour of exploration and two turns of rest are required after flight or pursuit.
are sprung if the referee throws a 5-6 on a six-sided die as a character passes over or nearby. Many of these are deadly. Traps can be located before they are sprung, however, in much the same manner as can secret doors. A trap can usually be circumvented or avoided once it has been found.
Each dungeon level can contain thoughtfully prepared encounters as well as wandering monsters. The former are monster lairs, hideouts, treasuries, meeting places, and so on devised during dungeon design. The referee should also check for wandering monsters at the end of each turn of exploration. This is done by throwing a six-sided die with a 6 indicating the appearance of monsters.
The kind of monster should be determined randomly. This is accomplished by dicing for the dungeon encounter table to use and then dicing on that table to determine which kind of monster appears.
The number of wandering monsters appearing should be as per the “No. Encountered” for their type. Having determined their numbers the referee should then throw to determine whether there is a lair of such monsters nearby. If so, then any member of the wandering group slain or captured is deducted from those found later in the lair.
More fearsome monsters will often be fewer in number, but even the lowliest sorts can be deadly in their multitudes. The referee can exercise his discretion if an undesired encounter is indicated, remembering that deeper dungeon levels are intended to be more dangerous than shallower dungeon levels.
When wandering monsters occur the referee should first determine whether either party is surprised. Surprise is possible only when either or both parties are unaware of the other. Light, noise, listening at or forcing doors, and various divinations can negate the possibility of surprise; otherwise, either party will surprise the other with a throw of 5-6 on a six-sided die. Thieves (if these are used) instead surprise with a throw of 3-6.
If either party is surprised the encounter will begin at 10-60ft distance and the surprised party will be unable to respond for one turn; otherwise, the encounter will begin at 20-120ft distance. Melee range is 1" (10ft in the underworld).
With or without surprise the direction and manner of a monster’s approach should be adjudicated by the referee in accordance with its type, the surroundings, and the disposition of the players. Unintelligent monsters will simply attack, while those with any cunning will judge the situation accordingly. Chaotics are predisposed to attack lawfuls, and vice versa, and normal man-types will only attack 4th (or higher) level fighters if there are no other targets.
The referee can otherwise determine monster behavior according to the following table, adjusting any result for bribes offered, perceived threats, differences of race or alignment, and so on.
The players have the option to flee unchallenged whenever monsters are surprised or are more than 3" (30ft in the underworld) distant. Monsters will pursue unless they are surprised or have a proper motivation not to.
Flight and pursuit speed is four times normal pace with no mapping possible. The gap will open or close according to the movement rates of the two parties, and pursuit will continue for so long as the pursuers do not fall more than a full move behind (more than 90ft behind for pursuers with a movement rate of 9"). The players may wish to discard treasure or equipment in order to lighten their encumbrance and increase their speed. Should the players turn a corner, take a stair, or pass through a door the pursuers will continue only if a throw of a six-sided die is 5-6.
Discarded foodstuffs will distract unintelligent pursuers with a throw of 2-6 on a six-sided die, and animal or intelligent pursuers with a throw of 4-6 or 6, respectively. Treasure is inversely likely to distract pursuers and burning oil is also an effective deterrent.
As the players explore a dungeon level its monster stocks and treasures will begin to be diminished and so too will its mystery. While egress to the greater challenges of lower levels is desirable, the referee should never allow any dungeon level to become too well known.
If even a single chamber is left unguarded for any length of time there is the possibility of new denizens arriving to replace losses. These might be from adjacent areas, lower levels, or newly excavated passages. Monsters that previously eluded the players might fortify areas by blocking or collapsing passages, barring doors, setting new traps, and so on. Intelligent monsters might set alarms or leave warnings in case of the players’ return.
The referee should not shy from extending the limits of a dungeon so that fresh areas always await exploration. Should the players nonetheless become blasé, the referee can introduce wholesale change due to cave-in, subsidence, flooding, supernatural winter, reality distortion, slime plague, and so on. These are but a few of the options the referee can employ to keep a dungeon fresh and challenging.
These mechanics are intentionally abstract so that combat is fast and furious.
For the purpose of underworld combat 1" represents 10ft and each turn is one minute in duration. A lot can happen in one minute of combat and any turn can be decisive.
allows one turn of unanswered actions. If these should include attacks they will be at +2 to hit and, if struck, the target will drop anything held with a throw of 1-2 on a six-sided die.
Each player declares his intent for the upcoming turn, stating whether his character will attack, utter a spell, overturn a boiling cauldron, or whatever.
The referee resolves all actions for the turn in whatever order he judges fair.
He may grant initiative to those firing missiles into advancing enemies, or to those with the advantage of reach (in the first turn) or lighter weapons (in subsequent turns), or to those fighting on battlements above. Otherwise, initiative is determined by throwing a six-sided die per group, or per combatant (adjusting for dexterity), with the higher score gaining the first opportunity to attack that turn.
Magic spells can be cast successfully in the turn that melee is joined if the caster wins initiative; otherwise, the caster is interrupted and his spell is ruined before completion. While a spell caster remains engaged in melee spell casting is not possible.
Any character within 1" is eligible to attack or be attacked in melee combat.
Performance throughout a turn of combat is determined with a single attack roll—a throw of one twenty-sided die. However, against normal-types, monsters and fighters instead throw one attack roll for each of their own hit die.
When a single attack roll is used the attacker strikes according to his level (for characters) or number of hit dice (for monsters). When multiple attack rolls are used the attacker always strikes as a 1 hit die monster, regardless of how many levels or hit dice he actually has.
In either case attack rolls are adjusted for tactical factors, magic weaponry, and enchantments and the result compared to the target’s armor class on the attack matrix. A total equal to or greater than the number required indicates an effective turn of action (a “hit”). Anything less indicates an ineffective turn of action (a “miss”).
Note that melee requires space. The referee should allow perhaps three men to stand abreast in a 10ft wide passage if they carry spears; swords and axes would require more space. Up to six men can surround a single man-sized target (with rear attacks striking at +2 to hit), while up to eight men can surround a larger monster.
A defender can forgo his attack to parry and cause an opponent to suffer a −4 attack penalty. Should his opponent miss because of this −4 penalty the defender’s weapon will be dashed from his grasp by a heavier weapon. If, on the other hand, his opponent misses regardless of this penalty the defender is allowed a counter-attack if equipped with a lighter weapon.
If a single attack roll is used a hit will cause 1-6 hit points of damage and be adjusted for strength, magical weaponry, and other factors. Spears set to receive a charge and charging lancers will instead cause 2-12 hit points damage and large monsters can cause more damage. If multiple attack rolls are used versus normal-types, each hit causes exactly 1-6 hit points of damage; all other adjustments are already represented by the multiple attack rolls.
Should any character be reduced to zero (or fewer) hit points, he is slain. Whether or not sustaining damage will otherwise affect a character is left to the referee’s discretion. Any unresolved attacks of a slain character are wasted.
Most intelligent monsters (including man-types) can be subdued and made to surrender if this intent is announced prior to attacks being resolved. Damage from subdual hits is recorded independently of damage from actual hits. After any turn in which damage is suffered the referee must determine the sum of subdual damage sustained as a percentage of actual hit points. Confidence is then checked by throwing a hundred-sided die with any result lower than the percentage of subdual damage sustained indicating the monster is subdued.
Subdued monsters will initially obey without reaction checks and can be sold as slaves, pets, or curiosities or brought into service as retainers if an acceptable offer is made.
Man-types can grapple an enemy bare-handed in order to overpower and capture him without killing him.
If the defender is armed, or is not a man-type, each attacker must make a successful attack roll before being able to contribute to the overbearing attempt. Each contributing attacker throws a six-sided die for each of his own hit die (although no more than six men can attempt to overbear a single man at a time).
The defender then throws one six-sided die for each of his hit dice and the totals are compared. If the attackers’ total is higher the defender will be hopelessly pinned. If the scores are equal the struggle is unresolved and can continue next turn. If the defender’s total is higher the attackers are thrown back 1" and unable to participate in the struggle next turn.
Missile fire is as melee combat except that attack rolls represent shooting at range and are adjusted for dexterity. Short range fire (including most missiles shot underground) is at +2 to hit. Hand-hurled missiles are reckoned to always be at medium range and are thus at +1 to hit. Long range missile fire is usually possible only outdoors and is at normal hit probability. Bows can throw two attack rolls per turn if stationary. All missile fire on the move (other than elves firing bows) is at −2 to hit. Firing from or into melee is not normally allowed.
Fireballs, lightning bolts, and like missiles must occupy their full area of effect. Hurling these into confined spaces will cause them to rebound off walls to fill the necessary space, including back towards the caster.
A morale check can be used to determine how monsters (including man-types) will react in potentially life-threatening circumstances.
The referee alone adjudicates when morale should be checked but will normally do so whenever potentially deadly circumstances occur. Thus, hireling or retainer morale would be checked when a deadly trap is sprung, when attacked by surprise, when losing a battle (at one-third losses), when a leader is slain, captured, or routed.
Particularly fearsome foes including the greater dragons and rocs, wraiths, and 8th (or higher) level fighters will cause normal-types (including player characters) to check morale merely by attacking.
The players have their own morale so their characters are not subject to morale checks unless compelled by magic or other super-normal threat. It may, however, be necessary to check the morale of monsters (including man-types) either fighting the players or serving them. Unintelligent monsters need never check morale.
A morale check is made by throwing two six-sided dice for the affected party. The total is adjusted for loyalty, monster type, and other circumstances as appropriate.
Monsters are assumed to have morale adjustments as stated in the explanation of monsters; however, the referee may wish to ascribe a loyalty score to particular individuals. This can be done in the same manner as for hirelings or retainers serving the players (by summing three six-sided dice) or by edict. High or low loyalty would adjust a monster’s morale checks accordingly, overruling the generic morale adjustments given in the explanation of monsters.
The referee can also adjust morale checks for specific circumstances including:
See the explanation of monsters for further cases.
The referee can determine monsters’ (or retainers’) behavior for the next turn by throwing a morale check and consulting the morale check table.
The referee should interpret the outcome by considering the capabilities and disposition of the affected party; non-combatants would not attack, troops defending a fortification would not abandon their advantage, and so on.
Lost hit points can be recovered by magical means and by ordinary rest, albeit at a much slower rate. One hit point is regained for every two days of complete rest in which no other productive activity can be undertaken.
Jousts are knightly contests of mounted combat. A fighter must possess armor, shield, helm, mount, and at least one lance to participate.
A joust is scored as the best of three tilts in which two mounted knights enter the lists and, separated by a barrier, make an unimpeded charge at one another with the objective of unhorsing the opponent. Each throws a single, simultaneous attack roll adjusted for the quality of his mount: destrier +8, war horse +6, riding or draft horse +2. On a hit throw two six-sided dice and consult the jousting table. For sport the lesser of the two dice indicates damage sustained; in war damage is the sum of both dice.
A glancing blow scores no points. Breaking a lance upon the opponent scores one point, or three points upon the opponent’s helmet. Unhorsing the opponent scores ten points. If a knight cannot continue due to injury he loses. The loser forfeits his mount or a grander wager by prior arrangement.
Charging lancers attack at +4 and cause 2-12 hit points of damage and use the jousting table to determine broken lances and unhorsing. Otherwise, mounted man-types attack those on foot at +2. Mounted war horses and giant wolves can also attack enemies on foot, having one attack roll per turn even versus normal-types.
Man-sized characters on foot attack mounted man-types at −2.
Missile fire against mounted normal-types is likewise penalized by −2. A mounted heroic-type is subject to missile fire only on a six-sided die throw of 5-6; otherwise his mount is subject to that missile fire.
Any hit on a rider will unhorse him on a six-sided die throw of 6. He will crash to the ground and be stunned for the remainder of the turn and, if he throws 1-4 on a six-sided die, for all of the following turn in addition. Should a rider or his mount be slain he is likewise unhorsed.
Saving throws are used when deadly threats occur. They represent one last chance to avert disaster. Players throw for their characters and the referee throws for the monsters. If either throws equal to or greater than the indicated number in the required category the direst consequences are avoided. Anything less invites disaster.
includes diseases and all deadly biological attacks such as snake bites, scorpion, spider or wyvern stings, imbibing poisoned wine, and wounds from envenomed weapons. This category is also used against the cloudkill and slaying spells.
includes rays, beams, and other attacks which can be dodged or deflected including wands of paralysis and lightning. This category is also used against the disintegrate, finger of death, and lightning bolt spells.
includes gross physiological attacks such as paralysis by contact with a gelatinous cube or petrification by medusa, basilisk, cockatrice, or gorgon attack. This category is also used against the flesh to stone, haste, hold monster, hold person, polymorph, and slow spells.
includes any cloud or area attacks such as chimera and dragon breath weapons, the wand of ice, and splash attacks including acid, burning oil, or Holy water. This category is also used against the fireball and web spells.
are coercive, mind-affecting sorts of magic including dryad and nixie charms, vampire gaze attacks, delirium caused by speaking with godlike beings, and domination by magic swords. This category is also used against the charm person, color spray, confusion, fear, feeblemind, magic jar, and phantasm spells.
With the exception of helms (which can be destroyed in combat), magic items are assumed to remain intact so long as the player survives. However, the referee may wish to allow items to be destroyed when the character is slain or otherwise exposed to particularly adverse circumstances. In this case the referee should make a saving throw for each item concerned.
Arms, armor, shields, and rings of protection add their defensive adjustment to their saving throws. Items that produce spell-like effects adjust their saving throw by +2 against similar effects. Thus, a wand of fireball and a flametongue sword would save at +2 versus red dragon’s breath weapon.
The referee should be circumspect about item saving throws. Effects such as poison, confusion, and feeblemind would not affect most magic items but petrification and disintegration would.
The referee will already have a map of the players’ starting location and the surrounding countryside. This will be critical for further exploration and for the establishment of strongholds, trade, and alliances later in the game. Whether regions unknown to the players are drawn in advance or as they are explored is up the referee. In either case the principal features should be placed thoughtfully with the remainder being filled in by random determination.
In addition to its terrain type each hexagon can possibly contain one (or more) significant features. These can be determined as opposite:
Note that rivers and trails should span a number of hexagons. Except in mountains (where rivers begin), swamps (where rivers end), and open hexes (where trails end), the referee should place these features without dicing when all other adjoining hexes have been resolved without these occurring.
For the purpose of wilderness exploration 1" represents 1 mile and each turn is a day in duration. The standard movement rates in inches are therefore the number of miles covered per day. Each hexagon is assumed to be 6 miles across, so the standard movement rates can be translated easily into a number of hexagons covered per day.
Difficult terrain including woods, swamps, and desert slow ground movement by half except along a trail. Rivers are impassable other than at fords and bridges, as are mountains other than by trails that can be navigated only on foot at half rate.
Visibility is generally limited to one hex (6 miles) range from a good vantage in open terrain. However, the referee may wish to allow visibility of up to three hexes (18 miles) when surveying open terrain from mountain passes, or up to 11-16 hexes (up to 100 miles) from a lofty mountain summit in clear weather. Note that intervening terrain and weather conditions can severely restrict visibility.
All travelers require a full day of rest after six days on the move. Dragons instead require a full week of sleep after six weeks of activity.
Weather conditions should be determined each day in the wilderness. If the previous day was hot throw one six-sided die and add 1. If it rained the previous day throw one six-sided die and add 6. Otherwise, throw two six-sided dice to determine weather conditions each day.
Hot weather will cause thirst, increase fatigue, and halve movement rate. Hot weather will also increase the risk of fire in the dry season.
Rain of any sort will reduce visibility. Hard rain will halve movement rate, as will any rain in the wet season.
So long as players stick to established routes they will have little difficulty navigating from one settlement to another. However, once they strike out into the wilderness, there is the possibility of becoming lost. The referee should secretly throw a six-sided die for the players each day with a 1 (in open terrain), a 1-2 (in woods or mountains), or a 1-3 (in swamp or desert) indicating that the players have gotten lost. If the players are lost they will move in an undesired direction that day without realizing it.
Where a stronghold is indicated it is an occupied keep, tower, or fastness at a strategic locale such as a bluff, crossroad, valley, bridge, or island. The principal resident of the stronghold should be determined randomly, as follows:
The resident will be of 9th to 12th experience level and will be attended by an entourage as indicated above. These are as for a lair of the appropriate type or else 1-6 individuals where no lair type is given. Heroes and anti-heroes indicate bands of 3-18 fighters of 3rd to 6th experience level (determined individually).
The resident may also have one or several lieutenants of level 5-8. A fighter is 50% likely to be attended by a cleric or a magic-user. A magic-user is 50% likely to be attended by a fighter or 1-6 apprentices (magic-users of level 3-6). A cleric is 50% likely to be attended by a fighter or 1-6 assistants (clerics of level 3-6). Check separately for either in all cases.
Regardless of the above a stronghold is occupied by a force of 30-180 soldiers with a similar number of supporting staff. If the principal resident is chaotic these are 50% likely to be orcs; otherwise, they are men.
Should the characters pass near a stronghold, the resident’s scouts or spies will spot them with a throw of 6 on a six-sided die at two hexes distance, with a throw of 5-6 at one hex distance, and with a throw of 3-6 if they pass within the same hex as the stronghold itself. If they are spotted, or if they hail the stronghold directly, the resident will respond to their presence.
A chaotic strongholder will always attempt to slay, capture, enslave, or deceive the players to gain whatever treasure or knowledge they might have or hold out against them if they are overly powerful.
A resident fighter will challenge the highest level fighter to a joust. Should the player joust and win he earns the right to the challenger’s hospitality for up to a full month for himself and his company—although a chaotic or neutral challenger may prove reluctant to pay!
Should the player joust and lose the challenger will demand his mount. If the players lack a fighter or decline the contest, the challenger will levy a toll of 1,000-4,000 gp for their passage.
A magic-user will exact a toll of one magic item of his choice from the player characters or else 1,000-6,000 gp if they have nothing desirable. If they cannot pay the magic-user may geas them to collect the necessary treasure on some quest. The magic-user will take his pick of any treasure recovered, or perhaps all of it.
A lawful cleric will require a tribute for his temple amounting to one-tenth part of whatever wealth the player characters have. If they cannot pay the cleric may quest them to perform some lawful mission—which will earn them his hospitality if completed successfully. An anti-cleric may demand one-fourth part of whatever wealth the player characters have. If they cannot pay he might simply slay them or else quest them to perform some chaotic mission—which might be their undoing.
Rivers and waterways are generally impassable other than at fords and bridges (except with a control water spell). These will frequently be occupied and, should an encounter occur in the vicinity of a ford or bridge, the referee may assume the encounter is at that feature.
Villages and towns have 100-400 and 1,000-6,000 inhabitants, respectively. Areas surrounding friendly towns are usually relatively safe. Farther from civilization roads are unkempt and there are few patrols. Folk in these parts are unfriendly, if not dangerous, and any kind of monster might be encountered.
The referee can assume that the 3 hexes (18 mile radius) around a friendly stronghold is cleared, patrolled, or otherwise relatively safe. Towns and villages control smaller areas, but all that lies beyond this immediate vicinity is known as “wilderness”. These vast tracts are nonetheless dotted with villages and castles of unknown disposition, as well as enclaves, ruins, and other curiosities awaiting discovery.
Wandering monsters occur in the wilderness as they do in the underworld. The referee should check once per day in the immediate vicinity of a friendly settlement or stronghold with a throw of 6 on a six-sided die indicating an encounter. In the wilderness proper he should check once per day in open terrain or desert or twice per day in woods, swamps, mountains, and riverlands. The referee should make one additional check per day if the players are lost or are at a bridge or ford.
When an encounter is indicated the referee can determine the type of monster by dicing on the appropriate wilderness encounter table for the terrain type.
Surprise occurs in the wilderness (as it does in the underworld) with a throw of 5-6 on a six-sided die except that animals will not be surprised from upwind. If the players are surprised they will typically find themselves encircled.
If either party is surprised an encounter will begin at 10-60 yards distance and the surprised party will be unable to respond for one turn; otherwise, an encounter will begin at 20-120 yards distance. Melee range is 1" (10 yards) in the wilderness.
Monster reaction to the players in the wilderness is as per the underworld.
A smaller group may desire to evade a larger group rather than encounter them. Hostile monsters (including previously offended stronghold residents) will pursue with a throw of 4-6 on a six-sided die, while non-hostiles will pursue only with a throw of 6.
The possibility of evading an encounter is determined by the relative size of the parties. If the evaders are not more than one-quarter as numerous as the pursuers they will evade with a throw of 3-6 on a six-sided die. If they are no more than half as numerous as the pursuers they will evade with a throw of 4-6; otherwise they will evade only with a throw of 5-6.
The odds of evasion are adjusted as follows:
If the pursuers are surprised evasion is 1 chance in 6 more likely. If the evaders are surprised there is no opportunity to evade unless low visibility or good speed dicates otherwise.
Woods, misty swamps, night, rain, fog, or snow all increase the chance of evasion by 1 in 6, even if surprised.
If either side’s movement rate is at least twice the other side’s movement rate the odds of evasion (or pursuit) are tipped in their favor by 1 chance in 6, even if surprised.
To resolve a pursuit scenario the evaders should throw one die. If the result is too low to evade, the pursuit catches up and an encounter is unavoidable; otherwise, the evaders have managed to gain ground over the pursuit.
Assuming the evaders have gained ground, the referee should determine whether or not the pursuers will continue to give chase. Unless specific circumstances dictate otherwise, the chase will continue with a throw of 4-6 on a six-sided die. If the pursuers throw high enough they gain ground and the pursuit is still on; otherwise, they have fallen too far behind and the pursuit is over.
This is repeated until either the pursuers give up or an encounter occurs.
Note that mapping is impossible during a pursuit. The referee should position the evaders somewhere within 1-6 hexes of their starting location at the conclusion of a chase.
Both parties must rest for the remainder of the turn (the day) after resolving a pursuit, regardless of whether it resulted in an encounter or not. At the beginning of the next turn (day) the players are considered to be lost. They will not know exactly where they are, only that they have endured a long pursuit and covered many leagues in a general direction.
As with wilderness exploration, ocean regions unknown to the players can be mapped in advance or as they are explored. The principal features should be placed thoughtfully with the remainder being filled in by random determination.
The referee can use the random wilderness tables to generate ocean regions for seafaring. Hexes of open terrain should be read as open ocean, woods as coast, mountains as reefs, desert as islands, and swamp as perpetually stormy ocean. Likewise, rivers should be read as strong currents, fords as confluences of currents, and trails as navigable seafaring routes. The other features are as in the wilderness except that villages should be ignored.
Seafaring exploration retains the wilderness exploration timescale of 1 turn per day.
Coastal waters (up to 3 hexes from land) and navigable inland rivers retain the wilderness exploration scale where each 1" of movement rate represents 1 mile traveled per day. The open ocean, however, is so vast and generally free of obstruction that sailing rate is improved threefold such that 1" of movement represents 1 league (3 miles) traveled per day.
Exploration by sea is otherwise similar to wilderness exploration excepting that players must have an ocean going vessel. These are of two types: oared and sailed.
such as galleys and longships are not restricted by wind direction but galleys, rafts, and boats are unable to withstand the high seas of the open ocean. These are limited to coastal waters except in calm weather.
such as merchants and warships can run swiftly before the wind, but otherwise must progress by a series of turns and tacks at impaired speed. Travel directly into the wind is generally impossible.
Movement rates for oared ships assume a full and well trained crew. Poor or incomplete crews can achieve half the listed rate.
Movement rates for sailing ships assume running fore a fresh wind. All other movement is at half rate. Note that sailing rates are faster on the open ocean due to the possibility of sailing unimpeded day and night.
One hexagon should be added when traveling with a current or subtracted when traveling against a current.
With the exception of boats and rafts, all sailing ships carry reserve oars and all oared ships carry reserve sails to be used if necessary. These allow movement at half rate.
All crews require a full day of rest after six days at sea or immediately after weathering a storm.
Distance to the horizon is determined by height above sea level. From a ship’s deck visibility is limited to one hex (6 miles). From a crow’s nest a sailor can see a ship up to two hexes (12 miles) away in clear weather. However, weather conditions can severely restrict visibility.
The wind strength and direction should be determined each day at sea. Throw one six-sided die to determine which hex face the wind is blowing from and two six-sided dice to determine wind strength.
Boats, rafts, and galleys will capsize in strong winds on the open ocean on a throw of 1-2 on a six-sided die each turn.
Navigation is impossible in storm conditions and any vessel will capsize on a throw of 1-2 on a six-sided die each turn. Any vessel that does not capsize is instead moved 2-7 hexes in a direction secretly determined by the referee and is immediately considered to be lost.
A ship’s captain will have no difficulty navigating a known route so long as the weather remains fair. However, should the weather turn nasty, there is the possibility of becoming lost. The referee should secretly throw a six-sided die for the players each day spent in strong winds—a 1-2 indicating they have gotten lost. If the players are lost the referee should move them an unplanned distance/direction on his map that turn without alerting them.
Settlements and strongholds occur at sea as they do in the wilderness. These can be wholly or partially submerged, built upon floating pontoons, clinging to rocky prominences, or whatever else the referee desires. Whether these are friendly or unfriendly can be determined with a reaction check.
Wandering monsters occur at sea much as they do in the wilderness. The referee need not check for wandering monsters while the players are within 3 hexes (18 miles) of a friendly port, but once out to sea proper he should check once each day on the open ocean or twice each day along a coast or waterway. An additional check should be made each day if the players are lost. A throw of 6 on a six-sided die indicates an encounter will occur.
When an encounter is indicated, determine the type of monster by dicing on the appropriate seafaring encounter table. If the players are traveling along a coast or inland waterway an encounter is equally likely to occur ashore as at sea. In this case, use the appropriate wilderness encounter table.
Surprise occurs at sea (as it does in the underworld) with a throw of 5-6 on a six-sided die. If the players are surprised the enemy ships or monsters will come at them from upwind, emerge suddenly out of fog banks or rain squalls, appear from behind rolling waves, or surface unexpectedly from underwater.
If either party is surprised an encounter will begin at 10-60 yards distance and the surprised party will be unable to respond for one turn; otherwise, an encounter will begin at 40-240 yards distance. Melee range is 1" (10 yards as in the wilderness). Shipboard artillery range is typically 300 yards.
Monster reaction to the players at sea is as per the underworld.
Evasion and pursuit at sea is as per the wilderness with the following additional considerations:
Vessels can engage in ship-to-ship (or ship-to-sea monster) combat. Ships are treated much as monsters—having hull dice instead of hit dice, and hull points instead of hit points.
When ship-to-ship (or ship-to-sea monster) combat occurs the referee should use the wilderness combat scale (1" to 10 yards and one minute turns) to resolve maneuvering and missile fire as the combatants approach one another.
Wind direction, tactical positions, and vessel facings can be marked on a scale map if desired or simply noted as closing distances. Oared ships can produce a burst of speed during combat, adding 6" to movement rate for up to three turns after which the crew is exhausted.
Ship-board artillery may be fired every other turn while spells and missiles may be loosed each turn. Normal missiles are ineffective against ship hulls but are allowed their maximum outdoor range, giving due consideration to weather conditions and ocean swell.
Small galleys are assumed to carry a single artillery battery on the fore deck. Large galleys carry two batteries (one fore and one aft), and warships carry four batteries (one each fore, aft, port, and starboard). Artillery hits cause 2-12 hull points of damage and will hole a ship below the waterline on any score of 10 or more hull points. A holed ship will sink in 3-18 combat turns (minutes) unless repairs are made.
Medieval ships are not generally built for ramming but a faster ship may ram a slower ship in the side, circumstances permitting. The ramming ship sustains one hull die damage while the rammed ship sustains half the rammer’s hull dice (rounded down) in damage. If 10 or more hull points are sustained the ship is holed below the waterline and will sink in 3-18 turns. Meanwhile, boarding may ensue.
When ships ram, grapple, or come along side for boarding the referee is advised to use the dungeon combat scale (1" to 10ft and one minute turns) to resolve any hand-to-hand combat. Ship deck plans can be used much as dungeon maps for this purpose. Troops fleeing from combat will only pitch themselves overboard in fair weather near to land; otherwise they will surrender.
Any player character who grew up on the coast or by a watercourse can swim, as can any non-player character who throws a 4-6 on a six-sided die. Swimming is at a rate of 6" in ideal circumstances; otherwise 3". A character can swim for at most a single day after which he will drown.
Anyone pitched into the sea risks drowning. Half of any ship’s crew cannot swim and will automatically drown; otherwise, unarmored men who can swim will survive with a throw of 2-6 on a six-sided die if they immediately rid themselves of anything heavier than a dagger. Each heavier item retained increases the risk of drowning by 1 in 6. Leather and mail armor count for one and four items, respectively, and plate armor causes automatic drowning. During a storm there is always a minimum of 3 chances in 6 of drowning. Survival indicates that the character has managed to remove his armor before drowning.
Should the players acquire winged mounts they can map wilderness and ocean regions by aerial exploration.
The referee may also wish to include cloud top regions which can only be reached on the wing. The referee can use the random wilderness tables to generate cloud top regions for aerial exploration. Hexes of open terrain should be read as vacant air, woods as islands of solid cloud, mountains as cloud piercing or floating peaks, desert as dangerously insubstantial islands of cloud, and swamp as perpetually stormy regions. Likewise, rivers should represent persistent currents, fords should represent confluences of currents, and trails should represent navigable tunnels or air ways. The other features are as per the wilderness except that villages should be ignored.
Aerial exploration retains the wilderness exploration timescale of 1 turn per day.
There are two modes of travel on the wing: low and high altitude.
At low altitude it is possible to observe or remain in contact with ground-level activity including pursuit and combat. However, at low altitude fliers must allow for hazards and turbulence and must weave routes around, between, or over terrain features.
At high altitude progress is unimpeded other than by the need to roost overnight; movement rate is generally double that achieved at low altitude.
Distance to the horizon is relative to altitude. In clear weather visibility is 2-6 hexagons (up to 36 miles) from low altitude, or 11-16 hexes (up to 100 miles) from a lofty mountain summit. However, poor weather conditions and intervening mountains will severely restrict visibility. From a high altitude visibility is 11-16 hexes (up to 100 miles) in perfect weather, but is usually limited by cloud cover.
Flying creatures other than air elementals need to roost overnight (or during the day if they travel at night). Additionally, flying creatures other than dragons and air elementals require a full day of rest after six days on the move. Air elementals are tireless fliers, while dragons require a full week of sleep after six weeks of activity.
Although travel by air is quick it is severely affected by poor weather.
Weather conditions should be determined by the referee for each day of aerial exploration. Throw one six-sided die to determine which hex face the wind is blowing from and two dice to determine wind strength. Aerial travel can be dangerous in strong winds and storms; travelers risk being dashed into obstacles, struck by lightning or flying debris, and so on.
Normal-type flying creatures, flying carpets, flying broomsticks, and the like will crash in strong winds with a throw of 1-2 on a six-sided die, checked once each turn.
Navigation is impossible in storm conditions and any flying creatures (other than air elementals) or vessels will crash with a throw of 1-2 on a six-sided die. A flier that does not crash is instead moved 2-7 hexes in a direction secretly determined by the referee and is immediately considered to be lost.
A flier will have no difficulty navigating a known route so long as the weather remains fair. However, should the weather turn nasty, it is possible to become lost. The referee should secretly throw a six-sided die for the players each day spent in strong winds—a 1-2 indicating that they have gotten lost. If the players are lost the referee should move them an unplanned distance/direction on his map that turn without alerting them.
Settlements and strongholds occur in the air as they do in the wilderness. At low altitude these are likely to be on the ground. If these are discovered at high altitude they could be levitating towers, built upon cloud banks, suspended by squadrons of hot air balloons, or whatever else the referee desires. Whether these will be friendly or unfriendly can be determined with a reaction check.
Encounters occur in the air much as they do in the wilderness. The referee should check once each day with a throw of a 6 on a six-sided die indicating an encounter.
When an encounter occurs determine the type of monster by dicing on the appropriate encounter table. If the players are traveling at low altitude the encounter is equally likely to occur on the surface as on the wing. In this case use the appropriate wilderness encounter table.
Surprise occurs in the air (as it does in the underworld) with a throw of 5-6 on a six-sided die. If the players are surprised their enemies will typically come at them from upwind or above, emerge suddenly out of clouds or rain squalls, or emerge from the dazzling glare of the sun.
If either party is surprised an encounter will begin at 10-60 yards distance and the surprised party will be unable to respond for one turn; otherwise, an encounter will begin at 40-240 yards distance. Melee range is 1" (10 yards) as it is in the wilderness. Airborne artillery range is typically 300 yards.
Monster reaction to the players on the wing is as per the underworld.
Evasion and pursuit on the wing is as per the wilderness with the following additional considerations:
Players with winged mounts or other means of flight can engage in aerial combat. Excepting air elementals, larger creatures are clumsier fliers than are smaller creatures. Climbing is slow and diving is fast.
When air-to-air combat occurs, the referee should use the wilderness combat scale (1" to 10 yards and one minute turns) to resolve maneuvering and missile fire as the protagonists engage. Altitude, wind direction, tactical positions, and facings can be marked on a scale map, if desired, or simply noted as closing distances.
Airborne artillery may be fired every other turn, while spells and missiles may be loosed each turn giving due consideration to air speed and weather conditions.
Large creatures can bombard ground targets by dropping rocks, logs, bodies, or similar missiles from above. These are treated as artillery attacks.
Missile fire from the air is always considered to be at long range and, against aerial targets, attack rolls are penalized by −4.
A mounted heroic-type is subject to missile fire only on a six-sided die throw of 5-6; otherwise his mount is subject to that missile fire. Should a rider be hit he is unhorsed with a throw of 6 on a six-sided die and will fall. Otherwise, a hit to his mount will maim a critical flight muscle with a throw of 6 on a six-sided die and cause it to crash to the ground.
Aerial melee attacks are made in passing clashes at a range of 1" (10 yards) with combatants being disengaged after each pass. Should a combatant lose the initiative he is unable to riposte that turn unless his speed and heading match his opponent’s, or the combatants are otherwise held together.
Falling or otherwise crashing is a constant hazard for fliers. A fall to earth from a low altitude will cause 1-6 dice of damage (1-6 to 6-36 hit points). A fall to earth from a high altitude will cause 10-60 hit points of damage after 1-4 turns (minutes) free falling.
Specialists are the elite category of hirelings whose services are only available to the wealthy. Specialists are engaged to undertake specific tasks and must be paid for a minimum of one month.
can duplicate potions from a sample or a proven formula at one-half the potion’s regular cost. They can also research new potions (including poisons although use of poison is an evil act) at double the cost of a magic-user’s equivalent spell research.
are necessary to train any non-domesticated creatures. An animal trainer can train one specific type of creature and no more than six such creatures can be trained at any one time. The duration of any training will be determined by the referee.
is required to maintain the arms and armor of every 50 fighters. While otherwise idle an armorer can fashion up to three shields or two helms per week, one suit of mail armor in a month, or one suit of plate armor in two months. Two assistant smiths will double this volume. Six assistant smiths will triple this volume.
can be found only rarely; no more than 1-6 are available in any game year. Success is determined by the referee according to the power and precautions taken by the subject. Hiring an assassin is considered an evil act.
is required for the construction of any bridge, stronghold, or other fortification. They are also required to undermine fortified walls and for any tunneling or mining.
are sea-faring fighters. In ship-to-ship combat they are equivalent to mercenaries; they wear only leather armor and are never mounted.
is a master of esoteric knowledge who can function in an advisory capacity.
are required to man any sea-faring ship. In ship-to-ship combat they are equivalent to buccaneers.
is required to effectively run any sea-faring vessel, maintaining order, discipline, and sea worthiness.
is required to maintain horseshoes, harness, buckles, axles, wheels, and so on for every 50 horses. While otherwise idle a smith can fashion one score arrow heads, four spears, two axes or swords, or a single two-handed sword per week.
can be found only rarely; no more than 1-6 are available in any game year. These are used to infiltrate, eavesdrop, shadow, and spy for the obtaining or planting of information or trinkets. Success is determined by the referee according to the precautions taken by the subject.
A wealthy character may wish to construct a stronghold such as a keep, tower, castle, or whatever is affordable. If he has reached 9th level he is always allowed to establish this stronghold; otherwise, he will require permission from the regional ruler. Depending upon the character’s alignment, charisma, and political prospects, such permission may not always be forthcoming.
Monsters must be cleared from within three hexes (18 miles) of the site before any construction can commence. Once a fortification has been established, however, the surrounds will remain clear of monsters so long as they are patrolled satisfactorily.
The region within three hexes of a stronghold (37 hexes total) will typically contain 2-8 villages of 100-400 inhabitants; these and other features can be determined by the referee using the random wilderness hex tables. If the occupier of a stronghold is at least 9th level he is entitled to collect 1 gp per month from each inhabitant for their protection. Clerics may collect an additional 1 gp per month for spiritual donations where alms are provided and services conducted.
These revenues may be used by the player to swell his personal treasury or to further his fledgling realm with roads, bridges, fortifications, inns, churches, animal husbandry, or whatever else. How these activities will influence the character’s reputation and his political prospects is for the referee to decide.
Below are the costs of common structures though any variation in size should adjust costs proportionately.
Any fortified opening through which missiles can be discharged including murder holes and oilettes.
A 10ft diameter, 20ft tall round tower section which protrudes where battlement walls intersect, enabling archers to fire through arrow slits.
A pair of 30ft diameter, 40ft tall crenulated towers with a 40ft section of curtain wall between them having battlements facing both inward and outward. The wall may be serviced by a gate with portcullis and drawbridge (at additional cost).
A 125ft section of curtain wall curved in an 80ft diameter semi-circle.
A heavy log ram suspended beneath a carriage on wheels or carried with handles. Used to batter down gates by force.
A 40ft wide and 20ft deep, two-story structure with both attic and basement. The wooden and stone versions are of identical design.
A mighty siege engine that lobs rocks up to 480 yards for 3-18 hit points of damage, firing every third turn with a complete crew.
A siege engine that lobs rocks up to 300 yards for 2-12 hit points of damage, firing every second turn with a complete crew.
A timber frame that suspends a great cauldron over the battlements, enabling defenders to pour boiling water or oil over the walls.
A 100ft long section of 15ft high crenulated castle wall.
A 100ft long section of 10ft deep and 20ft wide diggings. Fills with water in wet environments, forming a moat. Costs half if a rampart is also constructed.
A great door constructed of iron. A double-width gate costs triple.
A heavy hardwood door reinforced with tempered iron bands. A double-width gate costs triple.
A stout hardwood door. A double-width gate costs triple.
A wooden bridge up to 20ft long and 10ft wide affixed to a gate that is used to cross a ditch. Includes a winch used to raise or lower the bridge.
A 30ft long by 20ft wide fortification with 20ft high crenulated walls. Includes a double-width iron gate, portcullis and drawbridge.
A 250ft long section of curtain wall arranged in an 80ft diameter circle with an integrated gatehouse all surrounding a 40ft diameter, 60ft high crenulated circular tower.
A 100ft long section of 8ft high timber pickets. Usually a temporary or cheap structure in lieu of stonework defenses.
A heavy iron grate up to 12ft high and 8ft wide that can be raised and lowered to protect a gateway.
A 100ft long, 20ft wide and 10ft high pile of earth used for shelter or concealment or to raise the ground level outside a wall in order to surmount it. Costs half if a ditch is also constructed.
A 15ft tall wooden structure on wheels used to assail stronghold walls.
Up to a 10ft rise or fall of internal or external stone steps.
Up to a 10ft rise or fall of internal or external wooden steps.
Up to 20ft diameter, 30ft tall round tower with crenulated battlements.
Up to 15ft diameter, 40ft tall round tower with crenulated battlements.
Up to 30ft square, 30ft high tower with crenulated battlements.
A glass covered frame for admitting light, up to 3ft square. Can be opened for better visibility.
Strongholds may need to defend themselves or the surrounding territory from hostile or ambitious neighbors. Political intrigues, sieges, and field battles are all possible. While the combat rules herein can resolve actions involving large bodies of troops, the referee may desire to employ purpose-made wargaming rules for full-scale fantasy battles. Suitable rules for these engagements include “Chainmail” (1971), “De Bellis Fantasticus—Here There Be Dragons” (1998), and “The Book of War” (2011).
Super powerful magic items aligned toward law, neutrality, or chaos might exist at the referee’s option. These potentially game-altering objects are known as artifacts and should be handled by the referee with great care.
Artifacts are unique, campaign specific objects that have a purpose and a history. An artifact could be a throne, an extra-dimensional gate, a crown, a suit of mechanized armor, an enchanted ship, a sword of seven shards, or anything else the referee desires. They will be the subject of research and controversy among the wisest and may also be known through folklore to the common man.
Whatever its nature, an artifact is impervious to ordinary magic. Anti-magic shield, remove curse, dispel magic, dispel evil, and so on are completely ineffective. Moreover, an artifact is almost completely indestructible. There is typically only one specific way to destroy an artifact which invariably involves a great quest to some faraway and dangerous place.
Consequences for meddling with an artifact of differing alignment should be severe. Death, insanity, extra-dimensional imprisonment, 10-60 hit points of damage, loss of 1-6 experience levels, or similar would not be unreasonable. The power imbued when employing an artifact appropriately should be equally astonishing and this matter is left entirely to the referee’s imagination...
Magic-users and clerics can copy spells which they can memorize onto scrolls and can enchant other magical items at 9th level or higher. Items with spell-like powers that mimic magic-user or cleric spells can only be constructed by members of that class; other magic items can be created by either class.
The referee can extrapolate cost and time requirements for other items commensurate with their power and value. Invest wisely.
There are countless other worlds to explore that might be reached by magic or by other ingenuity. Moreover, the inhabitants of these unfathomable places might reach the here and now of the campaign at any time, or may have been present from the very beginning.
Visiting other planets, other times, or other dimensions are very real possibilities and the players might discover paths to abyssal depths, Elysian delights, or virtually any other place at any time. The possibilities are truly endless.
Should the players reach other worlds these should be remarkably different from our own. The assumed natural laws of gravity, time, space, temperature, inflammability, scale, and so on should not all apply. In this regard the wealth of science fiction and fantasy literature can be a great inspiration to the referee.
Monsters are the principal challenge that players will face in their adventures. They include all the genuine horrors of the underworld such as trolls, vampires, and dragons, as well as all the non-player characters of the world. Every character that is not run by a player is a monster—even the good townsfolk and the players’ hirelings.
It is clear then that not all monsters are harmful to the players. Some are quite benign and may even be helpful. Others are completely disinterested in the players so long as they don’t get in the way, while yet others are villainous threats that will seek to slay, capture, or waylay the players. A monster’s initial disposition toward the players is determined by a reaction check and its alignment. This characteristic is a one word summary of any monster’s stance in the eternal struggle between law, chaos, and neutrality.
Lair are the numbers of monsters typically encountered outside of or in their lair, respectively. A + indicates the possibility of leader-types and/or accompanying monsters. The number of monsters appearing outside the lair is appropriate for 4-6 characters whose experience level is equal to the monster’s number of hit dice. The referee can scale these figures for smaller or larger groups or as desired.
is for armor class.
are given in inches per turn. The first figure denotes the normal ground rate. If a secondary rate appears it denotes the flying, swimming, burrowing, or climbing rate as per the monster description.
lists the number of hit dice with any adjustment to hit points being applied after the given number of six-sided dice have been thrown and summed.
is the percentage chance that any encountered monsters will be from a nearby lair. “Nearby” is relative to the monster’s usual mode of locomotion. Whether the lair is easy or difficult to locate is for the referee to determine.
is for determining what treasure will be present in the lair. A * indicates the possibility of additional treasure as per the monster description.
L is for lawful, N is for neutral, and C is for chaotic. Some monsters can be of any alignment (men being among these) and others can be either of two alignments (elves and kobolds being among these). In all these cases any individual is always of exactly one alignment.
Wherever special melee damage is detailed it is applicable to heroic combat only. However, against normal-types, monsters throw one attack roll as a 1 hit die monster for each of their own hit die, with each successful attack roll causing 1-6 hit points of damage.
Monster saving throws are as the most appropriate player-type with as many experience levels as the monster has hit dice. For example, an android would save as a 2nd level magic-user, a troll would save as a 6th level fighter, and so on. A gothrog would save as a 10th level fighter/10th level magic-user, using whichever category is more favorable.
are artificial men. They often have superior qualities such as health, grace, comeliness, or education, but are otherwise indistinguishable save for the color of their blood. Some individuals possess mind powers equivalent to magic use of up to the 4th experience level (throw a six-sided die and subtract 2 for each android—a result less than 1 indicating no tangible mind powers); otherwise, they function as do ordinary men.
are 2-3ft long. They are industrious tunnelers and gatherers that occur in great colonies. Outside the lair only the soldier types will be encountered. Within the lair two-thirds of any ants encountered are 1 hit die workers that will not attack unless provoked. The remainder are soldiers that will attack anything that obstructs the business of the colony. A nest always has a 10 hit dice queen ant who is immobile and non-aggressive. Giant ants will never flee from their nest unless the queen is slain.
are generally non-aggressive but are extremely strong. They will climb trees for refuge but if provoked they can strike for 2-7 hit points of damage.
are large, slow, eight-legged reptiles whose gaze or touch will petrify any living creature that fails to save versus petrification. If it is tricked into seeing its own reflection in a mirror, a basilisk will likewise be petrified.
roost underground in great numbers during the day. They are mostly harmless to man-types but if a colony is startled and takes to the wing in a confined space they will create confusion. A flapping cloud of bats will obscure sight and possibly extinguish torches, cause equipment to be dropped, or cause spell casting to be interrupted.
are black as night and so silent on the wing that they will surprise their prey with a throw of 3 or more on a six-sided die. If their prey resists they will shriek, causing normal-types to cover their ears for one turn rather than fight.
are omnivorous but favor meat. They have rather poor eyesight but an excellent sense of smell and can scent food from miles away. They can be aggressive hunters and are very powerful. They cause 3-8 hit points of damage or, if an attack roll exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more or is a 20 in any case, 4-14 hit points of damage.
are of various sorts but are invariably hungry and can eat virtually any organic matter. They occur underground and in forests and can tunnel through soft earth. They do not hear or see well and rely on their sensitivity to vibrations and smell.
is an amorphous black blob which moves about a dungeon scavenging the leavings of other inhabitants. Due to its coloration and shapelessness it is very difficult to spot in dim light or shadows. It is susceptible to fire but invulnerable to cold. Lightning and slashing attacks will divide it into smaller parts without causing harm. Contact with a black pudding will dissolve wood and metal armor in one turn. Flesh is likewise dissolved suffering 3-18 hit points of damage per turn. Stone, however, is impervious. It can move along walls, floors, and ceilings without difficulty and can squeeze through tiny openings including cracks in stonework and under doors.
are wild pigs that occur in forests and on plains. They are frequently hunted for sport but are extremely tough; they always make one more attack roll after being reduced to 0 or fewer hit points. Every other boar encountered will be a sounder and if these young are attacked the adults will always attack and will absolutely not flee.
are similar to regular boars but for their great size and aggressive demeanor. They will attack anyone who enters their territory causing 2-12 hit points of damage. They will never retreat and will always make one more attack roll after being reduced to 0 or fewer hit points.
are enormous carnivorous bears that are always hungry. They have rather poor eyesight but an excellent sense of smell and can scent food from miles away. They are aggressive hunters and are extremely powerful. They cause 1-11 hit points of damage or, if an attack roll exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more or is a 20 in any case, 3-18 hit points of damage. Cave bears will always make one more attack roll after being reduced to 0 or fewer hit points.
are large but primitive Neanderthal types who are otherwise similar to men. They fight with crude axes, hammers, and clubs, but suffer a −1 adjustment to morale checks and have little treasure. Leader-types are always fighters but never possess magic items.
are horse-men having the body of a horse and the torso of a human. They have normal human intelligence and dwell in secluded glens and valleys in deep forests. Centaurs equip themselves with spears (25%), swords (25%), or clubs (50%) and shields with half carrying short bows in addition. Moreover, a centaur warrior can has two attack rolls each turn, once each with his weaponry and hooves. A centaur lair is much as a small human village having two mares and two foals for every warrior stallion present. Mares have one attack roll each turn only under duress and foals are non-combative.
are found almost anywhere and are aggressive hunters. Large specimens are up to 1ft long, while the giant types are up to 10ft long and have a hard, armored head but a relatively soft body. Both sorts move along walls and ceilings at normal speed. The bite of either causes paralysis although a saving throw is allowed and is at +4 in the case of large centipedes.
are fearsome three-headed monsters with great bat-like wings, the forequarters of a lion, the hindquarters of a goat, and the heads of goat, lion, and dragon. A chimera can use its breath weapon or engage in combat. The dragon head breathes a 6" long 2" wide cone of fire that deals 3-18 hit points of damage, although a successful saving throw versus breath weapons will reduce this by half. In combat a chimera has three attack rolls each turn against heroic enemies; the goat head butting or goring, the lion head biting or rending with its paws, and the dragon head biting.
are reptilian-fowl with bat-like wings. The merest touch of its tail feathers will petrify any living thing (other than a cockatrice) that fails to save versus petrification.
occur underwater, in coastal estuaries, and in swamps. They have hard, armored shells and if an attack roll exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more, or is a 20 in any case, they cause 1-11 hit points damage.
are voracious reptiles found in rivers and swamps of warm regions. They are difficult to spot when floating half-submerged in water and will often attack by surprise. If an attack roll exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more a crocodile will drag its victim back into the water where it will roll over and over until the victim is drowned. Crocodiles are lazy and will not pursue more than one turn out of water.
are thrice the size of their ordinary cousins but otherwise similar. An attack causes 2-12 hit points of damage and any attack roll that exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more swallows a man-sized victim whole. They are difficult to spot as they float half-submerged in water and they can overturn boats and rafts. A giant crocodile can be rammed by larger ships, possibly slaying the monster but also capsizing the boat (check separately for each).
were once men but are now mostly machines; inhumane and evil. They can occur in large numbers and aim to sweep across a population assimilating all man-types into cyborgs. They are cruelly strong and deal 3-8 hit points of damage on a hit, need never check morale, and will never give up a pursuit so long as the quarry is in sight.
are 20ft tall giants with but one large eye which is the cause of poor depth perception and a −2 adjustment on all attack rolls. They dwell in forlorn, out of the way ruins, islands, or undersea caves where they seldom encounter others. They are skilled smiths and should a player offer a useful gift and get a positive reaction the cyclopes may offer magical armor in return. A cyclops does battle with a huge club and deals 6-21 hit points of damage and can hurl rocks up to 20" for 2-12 damage. They especially prize gold and their treasure hoard will always contain an additional 2,000-5,000 gp.
Dinosaurs are great, prehistoric lizards and can be fearsome enemies. The largest predators are few but can swallow man-sized victims whole while the smaller types occur in hunting packs. Herbivores of all sizes appear in herds. None of them covets treasure.
are among the largest creatures walking on land. They are up to 80ft long, 20ft tall at the shoulder, and can weigh over 30 tons. They spend their time grazing the vegetation of the great plains and swamplands. Fortunately, they are peaceful herbivores and unlikely to attack unless provoked. The chief danger they present is from crushing, barging, or stampeding ahead of predators or fire. Hits deal 3-18 hit points of damage due to their immense mass.
include any of the relatively small pack hunting carnivores up to 5ft high and 10ft long. They are quick and cunning and inclined to stalk prey, only attacking at the optimal moment. They will not give up a pursuit while their prey remains in sight.
are huge reptilian swimmers up to 40ft in length. These marine lizards have paddle-like limbs, finned tails, and huge jaws bristling with curved teeth. They are found in any deep waters but must surface to breathe air. A hit causes 3-18 hit points of damage but if ever an attack roll exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more, or is a 20 in any case, a mosasaur will swallow a man-sized target whole.
are any man-sized and larger reptilian fliers that rule the prehistoric skies. They occur in coastal and swampy regions where they nest in colonies that cling to cliff faces, cave walls, and escarpments, and are always hungry. The most common forms are approximately man-sized with wingspans of 10-25ft but the largest sorts are up to 20ft tall with wingspans of up to 40ft.
are large herbivores up to 30ft long and 10ft high and up to 3 tons in weight. These have very tiny brains and a distinctive array of shield-like plates along the ridge of the spine, granting AC 2 versus attacks other than from the flank. They have a fist of 2ft long spikes on the tail which will strike for 2-12 hit points of damage to the flank or rear; otherwise, damage is 3-8 hit points.
are huge, aggressive herbivores that will run down any threat to the herd. They are up to 30ft long and 10ft high and can weigh up to 10 tons. A triceratops has a huge skull with a distinctive bony frill and three great horns granting AC 2 from the front. Should it charge an enemy it will deal 4-24 hit points of damage; otherwise, damage is 2-12 hit points.
are huge carnivorous lizards and truly fearsome predators. They are up to 20ft tall and 40ft long and can weigh up to 7 tons. The jaws contain scores of dagger-like fangs and any hit causes 4-24 hit points of damage. On any attack roll that exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more, or is a 20 in any case, it will swallow a man-sized target whole.
is a creature of air appearing as a supremely confident, bare-chested warrior. They can fly as easily as walk, even burdened with thrice what an ordinary man could bear. A djinni can become invisible, assume gaseous form, or magically create any desired object at will. Soft materials including food, drink, and garments are permanent. Harder materials have a shorter existence; djinn gold lasts only a day, steel only an hour. A djinni can also create magical illusions on a whim and these are equal to the phantasm spell except that a djinni has no need to concentrate to maintain the illusion.
A djinni can also transform into a torrid whirlwind 3" high and 2" wide which will sweep away all normal-types. The whirlwind takes one turn to form and another to dissipate. A djinni deals 1-11 hit points of damage in combat due to his formidable size and strength.
are keen nosed pack animals that inhabit plains and prairies. They can be trained only if separated from the pack as pups but will then have +2 loyalty.
are humanoid creatures that can change their physical form to identically resemble any man-like creature they have observed. Once a likeness is achieved they can do away with the victim and then act in his role for a time to gain the utmost advantage before attacking again. Doppelgangers are immune to sleep and charm spells and make saving throws as a 10th level fighter.
are 30ft diameter turtles with long, sinuous necks and dragon heads. They are found only in large bodies of water and lair in deep, underwater grottos.
A dragon turtle has a 9"×3" conical breath weapon of scalding steam which functions as does a dragon’s breath weapon. It can surface beneath even a large ship, having a 50% chance of capsizing the vessel.
Dragons are the great flying wyrms of legend and are always heroic/superheroic, regardless of hit dice. They are of six types: white, black, green, blue, red, and golden and have the following characteristics:
White dragons are the least intelligent sort and have the usual 20% chance of knowing the common tongue and no possibility of magic use. Golden dragons are the most intelligent sort and they always know the common tongue and always have the use of magic spells. The other dragons have various chances of speaking the common tongue and only 10% chance of being magic-using.
All dragons have six life stages: hatchling, young, adult, mature, old, and ancient. The size of a dragon’s breath weapon is determined according to its life stage, as is the possibility of a dragon being asleep if encountered in its lair. Note that even a wakeful dragon may appear to be sleeping.
All dragons can sense hidden and invisible creatures within 6". From adulthood they are impervious to normal missiles and need never check morale. Old and ancient dragons require normal-types to throw a positive morale check to approach nearer than 15" or to hold their ground if the dragon attacks.
Should a dragon be sleeping the characters may, if great caution is employed, approach without waking it. If this is successfully accomplished a single turn of surprise attacks is allowed at +2 to hit. These will wake the dragon immediately and thereafter regular combat will ensue.
A dragon can use its dreaded breath weapon only thrice per day and will do so to its maximum advantage. Those unfortunates that are targeted suffer damage equal to the dragon’s current hit points or half this number with a successful saving throw versus breath weapons.
Should a dragon be magic-using it will know as many spells as it has hit dice. It will have access to 1st level spells as a hatchling, 2nd level spells as a young dragon, and 3rd level spells thereafter. Golden dragons only continue in this manner, attaining 6th level spells as ancient dragons.
are encountered they will be related individuals of the same type. A pair of dragons could be siblings, mother and daughter, or a mated pair as appropriate for their age category. Hatchlings and young dragons will be the offspring of adults present. If these are attacked, the adults will immediately use their breath weapons against the offender. If either adult of a mated pair is attacked, its mate will retaliate at +4 to hit the following turn or for the remainder of the combat if its mate is slain.
With the exception of the golden type, dragons can be subdued as usual. A subdued dragon will serve so long as its master remains in a commanding position but will otherwise attempt to escape or slay him. A subdued dragon can be sold into servitude on the open market for 500-1,000 gp per hit point it has—although the player may have difficulty finding an appropriate buyer.
Hatchlings have not yet acquired any treasure. Older dragons have a hoard worth ½ a type H treasure for each age category beyond hatchling.
dwell in swamps, marshes, and jungles. They are patient hunters and can fly, swim, and breath underwater indefinitely. While a black dragon lurks underwater the pool will gradually stagnate and become foul. Its breath weapon is a searing jet of acid which affects all targets in a line. They are themselves invulnerable to acid.
are found in arid regions soaring on the hot desert airs. They are shrewd hunters and love best to drop unseen from the azure skies but can also bury themselves in sand dunes for ambush. A blue dragon’s breath weapon is a cracking bolt of lightning which will affect all targets in a line. They are themselves invulnerable to lightning.
can be found in any habitat. Despite being the only lawful dragons they will not serve any player and cannot be subdued in combat. They are very intelligent and always magic-using and will employ spells cleverly in combat. Moreover, they are highly magic resistant and make all saving throws versus magical attacks at +4. A gold dragon’s breath weapon is a sonic blast that will also damage structures. They sometimes polymorph into human form to move freely among men.
are found in daunting woods and impenetrable forests. They are voracious hunters of food and treasure and keen gatherers of intelligence. They will attack weak targets immediately but stalk more formidable prey. A green dragon’s breath weapon is a withering cone of chlorine gas. They are immune to poison.
dwell in mountain caves from where they terrorize the surrounds. They are voracious predators and their greed is legendary. They will usually attack on sight but prefer not to destroy treasure with their fearsome fiery breath weapon if possible. They are themselves invulnerable to fire.
dwell in polar regions and are cunning predators that can fly, swim, and tunnel through snow and ice. They will not slip on ice and their breath weapon is a blistering cone of cold. They are themselves invulnerable to cold.
are shy and reclusive creatures who have exhaustive knowledge of their forest homes. Each is bound to an individual tree and can go no farther than 24" from it. A dryad is non-violent but can employ a powerful charm causing a saving throw versus spells at −2. Those who fail will never leave the forest.
dwell underground and see equally well by day or by night. They are redoubtable fighters and ogres, trolls, and giants score only half damage against them. Away from the lair a troop of dwarfs is always accompanied by one 1st-6th level fighter for every 40 dwarfs. In their stronghold lair there will instead be one 3rd-6th level fighter for every 40 dwarfs. A leveled fighter has a 10% chance per level of being equipped with magic armor, a magic shield, and a magic axe or hammer (check separately for each). A dwarf stronghold is 50% likely to be additionally defended by domesticated animals such as 1-6 bears or 1-8 giant weasels (check separately for each).
is a creature of fire and an irreconcilable enemy of the djinn. They are immensely strong—being able to bear what eight men can carry—and deal 2-12 hit points of damage in combat. Efreet can also fly, become invisible, and magically create any desired object at will. Soft materials including food, drink, and garments are permanent. Harder materials have a shorter existence; efreet gold lasts only a day, steel but one hour. An efreeti can also create magical illusions on a whim and these are equal to the phantasm spell except that an efreeti has no need to concentrate to maintain the illusion. Additionally they can cause a wall of fire to spring up and can themselves become incendiaries. If bound into service an efreeti will grudgingly serve for a year and a day but no longer.
An elemental is an essential force of nature and is one of four types: earth, air, fire, and water. Each can appear in three sizes: 8, 12, or 16 hit dice. Elementals of any sort are affected by magical weapons only.
All elementals, no matter the hit dice or type, must be controlled by the summoner. If the summoner’s concentration is broken for any reason the elemental will cease whatever it is doing, move at its best speed, and attempt to kill him. Anyone between the elemental and its summoner will be attacked and everyone else will be ignored. Once control has been relinquished there is no way to regain it. The elemental will attack until it or its target is destroyed and immediately return to its home dimension.
The only means of motility possessed by an air elemental is flight but they have absolute control over their movement, hovering or changing speed at will. These monsters cause 2-7 hit points of damage and attack at +2 to hit versus aerial opponents. They can spin into a fearsome whirlwind 3" wide at the base, 6" wide at the apex, and 1" of height for each hit die possessed (e.g., 8" tall for an 8 HD air elemental). The whirlwind takes a turn to form and another to dissipate and will sweep away all normal-types.
These creatures of earth and stone will strike with their mighty fists for 3-18 hit points of damage to opponents standing on solid ground and causing structural damage to constructions such as castle walls. Against opponents not standing on solid ground an earth elemental inflicts 2-12 hit points of damage. Earth elementals move at 6" over or through earth but cannot cross water. A move earth spell will drive an earth elemental back 12" and cause 6-36 points of damage.
Fire elementals move 12" per turn but cannot cross water. The touch of these monsters causes inflammable materials to ignite. In combat a fire elemental usually causes 2-12 hit points of damage. Against other fire-based creatures (red dragons, salamanders, fire giants, and so on) they cause only 2-7 hit points of damage. Fire elementals can only be summoned from a large source of heat such as a bonfire, a furnace, or molten lava.
Water elementals are very dangerous in their environment, causing 2-12 hit points of damage in the water but only 1-6 hit points of damage on dry land. They can overturn boats and small vessels and prevent large vessels from moving. Water elementals can only be summoned from a large body of water such as a stream, pond, or lake. Once formed, a water elemental must remain within 6" of a large body of water. Its movement rate is 18" in water but 6" out of water.
are reclusive woodland folk. They can move silently and almost invisibly through woods in their gray-green cloaks and are equipped with swords and spears or swords and bows (50% chance of either). For every 40 elves encountered there will be a leader-type with 2-4 fighter levels and 2-6 magic-user levels. For every 80 elves encountered there will be an additional 4th/6th level fighter/magic-user. Leader-types may possess magic items as per men. All elves add +1 hit point of damage when employing magic weapons and those with bows can move and fire without penalty.
are of various sorts including barracuda, gar, and pike. They are aggressive hunters and always hungry. They occur in wild schools and as domesticated guardians around merman and nixie lairs.
appear much as the sculptural depictions in gothic architecture. They can remain perfectly still indefinitely and are indistinguishable from ordinary statues when so perched. They are notoriously hostile, however, and will attack without provocation 75% of the time. They are fond of ambush and normal weapons do them no harm.
is a cube-shaped, transparent scavenger that shapes itself to fit dungeon corridors up to 10ft by 10ft wide and moves about sweeping them clean. It picks up and absorbs everything from rocks and carrion to living things and treasure, which it is unable to digest. Thus, these scavengers carry a miscellany of durable items (coins, gems, daggers, helms, and so on) suspended in their transparent innards. Contact with a gelatinous cube causes paralysis unless a successful saving throw is made, and thereafter causes 1-6 hit points of damage per turn as the flesh is digested. They are invulnerable to cold and lightning, and immune to fear, paralysis, and polymorph.
are eaters of living and carrion flesh. Their attack rolls and morale checks are penalized by −2 in daylight but the touch of these undead creatures causes paralysis for 1 turn in normal man-types (except elves, who are immune). A man-type slain by a ghoul will arise again the following night as a ghoul.
Giants are enormous, ugly humanoids who can hurl great rocks 20" for 2-12 hit points of damage and need never check morale against man-types. Unless noted otherwise, giants also cause 2-12 hit points of damage in melee combat. A wandering giant carries a great shoulder sack that contains his possessions including rocks, prisoners, other miscellany, and 1,000-6,000 gp worth of coins. Giant lairs are 50% likely to be guarded by a 5-10 headed hydra (with a throw of 1-4 on a six-sided die), or 2-20 wolves (with a throw of 5), or 1-6 bears (with a throw of 6). Giants are of various sorts including:
are 18ft tall and inhabit unbelievable castles among the clouds. They cause 3-18 hit points of damage in melee combat and their sense of smell is so amazingly keen that they are rarely surprised.
are 12ft tall and of stocky build. They cause 4-14 hit points of damage in melee combat and lair in castles and caverns wherever there is lava, fire, or great heat. They are themselves invulnerable to fire.
are 16ft tall and cause 3-13 hit points of damage in melee combat. They favor huge horned helmets and lair in frigid castles and caverns. They are themselves invulnerable to cold.
are the most base sort. They are 12ft tall and lair in rudimentary caves. They frequently associate with ogres, orcs, and other wicked creatures.
are 14ft tall and inhabit isolated mountain cavern systems. They hurl rocks for 3-18 hit points of damage.
are 20ft tall and cause 6-21 hit points of damage in melee combat. They inhabit formidable castles situated in out of the way places including islands, mountains, and cloud tops. They are able to control weather to create stormy conditions—which they will do when angry or expecting battle. As well as hurling rocks a storm giant can call down a lightning strike for 8-48 hit points of damage in thunderstorm conditions. They are themselves invulnerable to lightning.
fight with +2 morale. The lair will contain a chieftain and 1-6 bodyguards who fight as 4 and 3 hit dice monsters, respectively.
are found in Arctic climes. They are smaller and more reclusive than their cousins, the dwarfs, but have longer beards and bigger noses.
are small, malicious humanoids who operate underground or at night, adjusting attack and morale checks by −1 in full daylight. Each fighting goblin carries coins worth 1-6 gp with him, even outside the lair. The lair will be a cave complex containing as many non-combatants as combatants, as well as a goblin king and 4-24 bodyguards who fight as 2 and 1+1 hit dice monsters, respectively. The lair is 50% likely to contain an additional 3-12 giant wolves and 3-18 ogres (check separately for each).
Golems are powerful automatons created by high level magic-users and clerics that exist only to obey the commands of their creators, following instructions to the letter. They are ponderous and dull-witted but incredibly strong. In combat they strike for 2-12 hit points of damage and can batter through wooden structures including doors. They are largely invulnerable to harmful magic, but there is a 1% chance per turn of combat that a golem will go berserk. Should this occur the creator cannot regain control and the golem will continue to attack whatever creature harms it or is nearest until it is destroyed.
are created by high level clerics from blood and pliable clay. A disintegrate spell will slow a clay golem and cause 2-12 hit points of damage and a move earth spell will drive a clay golem back 12" and cause 6-36 hit points of damage; otherwise, they can only be harmed by magical weapons. After one turn of combat a clay golem comes under the influence of a haste spell for the next three turns. Injuries caused by a clay golem cannot be cured by a cleric lower than 9th level.
are powerful automatons created by high level magic-users from stitched together body parts, but they are not undead. Cold and fire based spells will slow a flesh golem and lightning will heal it; otherwise, they can only be harmed by magical weapons.
are aggressive, bull-like creatures covered in iron scales with a rightly feared breath weapon that turns targets to stone. The breath weapon extends to a 6" long by 2" wide cone and is usable thrice per day.
are giant, fiery fiends of dreadful power and intelligence. They see in darkness as men see in daylight and combust inflammable materials by merely passing nearby. Fire and normal weapons cannot harm them and it is 75% likely that magic spells will not affect them.
Gothrogs carry great, flaming, magic swords and fiery whips and can attack with either or both each turn. Should a gothrog employ both weapons it can target two opponents, causing 2-12 hit points of damage to each. If it employs only one weapon it does so at +2 to hit. The flaming sword causes 3-18 hit points of damage. The whip causes only 1-6 hit points of damage, but entangles the target so the gothrog can drag him unto itself, where upon it will immolate and cause an additional 2-12 hit points of damage to everybody within 1".
Gothrogs need never check morale and cannot be subdued. A powerful chaotic character might attempt to enlist one with a substantial offering, but only a top level anti-cleric has the presence necessary to keep a gothrog firmly under control. A gothrog would ever be bent upon usurping the authority of any other master.
is a creeping dungeon scavenger which is difficult to spot in dim light as it appears much like wet stonework. It can move along walls, floors, and ceilings equally and can squeeze through tiny openings including cracks in stonework and under doors. It dissolves metal armor in one turn and causes 2-12 hit points of damage per turn to flesh but has no effect on wood or stone. It is impervious to cold and fire but subject to lightning and normal weaponry (but note its effect on metal).
is a pernicious dungeon hazard that clings to walls, floors, and ceilings. It begins to eat through flesh, wood, and metal (but not stone) after one turn of contact, transmuting these into green slime. It cannot be physically scraped off so anything it comes into contact with must be discarded immediately. It is impervious to lightning and physical blows but is harmed by cold and fire. A remove disease spell will slay it instantly.
are majestic creatures with the forequarters of an eagle and the hindquarters of a lion. They are fleet and fiercely territorial and will attack without provocation should anything approach the aerie lair. Griffons make loyal steeds if they can be trained but crave horse flesh above other foods and will attack any horse or pegasi within 36".
are small, peaceful folk interested chiefly in home comforts. When the need arises they are able to move silently and almost invisibly and to hide quite superbly. For every 30 halflings encountered there will be a leader with 1-4 fighter levels. All halflings are deadly accurate with hurled missiles adjusting attack rolls by +3.
are admirable beasts with the forequarters of an eagle and the hindquarters of a horse. They are omnivorous hunters and highly sought as mounts for their great speed—despite their intolerance of pegasi. They need never check morale when defending their nest.
are the largest and most fearless goblins. They are armored, well organized, and have +1 to morale checks except in full daylight where they must instead adjust attack rolls by −1. Wandering bands are always led by a sergeant who fights as a 2 hit dice monster.
The lair will be a village, ruin, or cave complex containing half as many non-combatants as combatants as well as a hobgoblin king and 2-12 bodyguards who fight as 3 and 2 hit dice monsters, respectively. The lair is 50% likely to contain an additional 3-12 giant wolves, 3-18 ogres, and 2-12 trolls (check separately for each).
are domesticated riding animals and beasts of burden. Riding horses, draft horses, and mules will flee fire and may be panicked by strange smells. Only warhorses and destriers will attack in combat, having a single attack roll even versus normal-types.
Only mules are agile enough to enter the labyrinthine passages of a dungeon.
are large reptilian monsters with one head per hit die. Each serpentine head can be destroyed by sustaining 6 hit points of damage. The entirety of the beast is slain only when all of its individual heads are dispatched. Circumstances allowing, each head can select an individual target and make an attack roll each turn. However, it attacks as a fighter rather than as a monster.
is a creature from the null-dimensions which can be conjured to the material world by powerful magic. It is indistinguishable from air without the benefit of a detect invisibility or a true seeing spell. It is a faultless tracker and, if encountered in the material world, an invisible stalker will be single-mindedly preoccupied with whatever mission it is carrying out.
is an incredibly massive creature of solid ore, though whether it is self-willed or magically motivated is unknown. These behemoths have only ever been sighted individually and can take any form; a great armored knight, a mammoth, and a rhinoceros have all been reported. A juggernaut is so massive that it is impelled upon huge stone rollers with anything falling in its path being crushed utterly beneath it.
Regardless of its form a juggernaut always has a massive dark jewel affixed to it; between the eyes, in the chest, or atop a helm, staff, or sword, and so on. The jewel glows with an eerie light and can cast out a slaying spell each turn or an improved hold person spell which will affect 2-12 man-types who save at −2 or a single man-type who saves at −6. Unfortunates so held will soon be crushed beneath the juggernaut. If the jewel is somehow removed from a juggernaut it has no magical properties but is worth 20,000-120,000 gp.
If it comes to blows a juggernaut deals a crushing 5-30 hit points of damage. It is impervious to most magical attacks and can only be harmed by magical weapons of +3 or better quality. A juggernaut need never check morale and cannot be subdued.
are small, cowardly, reptilian humanoids who dwell in quags and wetlands. They are able swimmers and prefer to attack in great numbers from ambush. Each fighting kobold carries coins worth 1-6 gp with him, even outside the lair. Their lair will be a marshy cave complex containing as many non-combatants as combatants as well as a kobold king and 5-30 bodyguards who fight as 1+1 and 1 hit dice monsters, respectively. The lair is 50% likely to contain an additional 3-24 crocodiles and 2-12 giant lizards (check separately for each). Their morale checks are adjusted by −1 unless they are defending their lair and they outnumber their enemies by 3 to 1 or more.
are loathsome swamp parasites that will attach to victims on a successful attack and drain one experience level in the turn after attachment and another every other turn thereafter until either the victim or the leech is slain.
are the great cats of the plains. They occur in hot to tropical climates and are territorial hunters who will stalk prey patiently in order to attack by surprise. They can leap 30ft forward but dislike climbing and swimming. They cause 2-7 hit points of damage or, if an attack roll exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more or is a 20 in any case, 2-12 hit points of damage.
are similar to regular lions except that they are larger and occur in caves and mountainous regions. They cause 3-8 hit points of damage or, if an attack roll exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more or is a 20 in any case, 4-14 hit points of damage.
Living statues are large, powerful humanoid automatons. Standing silently they are indistinguishable from ordinary statues of great size. Living statues are extremely heavy and move ponderously but with purpose. They can batter through wooden structures, including doors, and are largely invulnerable to harmful magic.
are cast from solid metal. In combat they can exhale a 1" radius cloud of poisonous gas or else strike for 4-24 hit points of damage. Lightning attacks will slow them and fire will heal them; otherwise, they can only be harmed by magical weapons of +3 or better quality.
are hewn from solid rock. In combat they can slow one target per turn or else strike for 3-18 hit points of damage. Cold and fire will slow them and stone to flesh will heal them; otherwise, they can only be harmed by magic which specifically affects stone or magical weapons of +2 or better quality.
are found in desert and jungle climes. Large lizards can be up to 6ft in length and giant lizards up to 15ft. Both types have superb camouflage markings and can hold an absolutely still position indefinitely. If a giant lizard should throw an attack roll of 20, its bite will clamp onto its prey and not let go, automatically causing damage each turn thereafter until either it or its prey is slain.
are reptilian humanoids with crocodile-like jaws and tails and a rudimentary intelligence. They employ primitive spears and clubs and will capture as many humans as possible—returning with them to their lair for a tribal feast.
The lair will be a wet or marshy cave complex containing half as many non-combatants as combatants as well as an equal number of kobolds and 2-16 prisoners. There will be a lizardman chieftain and 1-6 bodyguards who fight as 4 and 3 hit dice monsters, respectively. There is also a 33% chance that the lair will contain 2-12 giant lizards, 3-24 crocodiles, or a dragon (check for each separately). If a dragon is present it will be an adult, mature, or old specimen of the black or green type.
are also known as werebeasts and are of various sorts. All are man-types afflicted with lycanthropy and cannot be harmed by normal weaponry unless it is silvered. Any man-type seriously wounded by a lycanthrope will become one of the same type at the next full moon unless he receives a remove disease spell before this occurs.
Outside the lair werebeasts run in packs of 1-10 adults. If more than 8 are encountered in the lair one-third will be adults with the remainder being non-combative young. A lair will also contain animals of the appropriate type (1-6 bears for werebears, 1-12 boars for wereboars, 1-6 tigers for weretigers, or 1-10 wolves for werewolves). If the young are attacked adult females will retaliate at +4 to hit for the remainder of the combat. If females are attacked the adult males will retaliate at +4 to hit thereafter. If all adults are slain the young are automatically subdued.
are great lion-like beasts with dragon-wings, man-like faces, and powerful tails that culminate in 24 iron spikes which can be flung in a volley of 6 at any target within 18". These are carnivorous and favor human flesh.
are proto-elephants encountered on open plains in any climate. They occur in herds and are generally non-aggressive unless threatened or in the mating season. At these times the males will attack anyone who might dare to approach the herd. They cause 4-14 hit points of damage due to their prodigious size.
have the lower body of a great serpent and the upper body of a woman, except that their hair is a tangle of deadly venomous snakes. So abhorrent is a medusa’s appearance that anyone who meets its gaze will be turned to stone unless he makes a successful saving throw versus petrification. Any medusa who sees her own refection will likewise be turned to stone.
Men are of various sorts and lair in villages, caves, hide-outs, encampments, and so on. Brigand and buccaneer lairs will have 2-12 prisoners who will always be persons of some importance. Bandit and pirate lairs will have 3-30 prisoners of any sort. A nomad encampment is always guarded by an additional 20-40 nomads on foot.
Each individual man will have 2-12 sp on his person (in addition to whatever treasure may be found in the lair) except that pirates and buccaneers have 2-12 gp each instead. For every 25, 50, and 100 men encountered there will be an additional leader who is a 3rd-4th, 5th-6th, or 7th-8th level fighter, respectively. If at least 200 men are encountered it is 50% likely they are also accompanied by a 5th-8th level magic-user and a 3rd-6th level cleric (check separately for each). If 300 men are encountered there absolutely will be an additional 9th-12th level magic-user and an additional 7th-10th level cleric.
Leader-types have a chance of possessing magical items appropriate to their class. Fighters have a 10% chance per experience level of possessing a magic sword and are half as likely to possess a magic shield or magic armor. Clerics are 2% likely per experience level to possess a magic mace, flail, hammer, or staff and are 5% likely to possess a magic shield or magic armor. Magic-users are 5% likely per experience level to possess a magic wand and are equally likely to possess a magic ring or a miscellaneous magic item. Check separately for each item in all cases.
are desperate and surly scavengers equipped simply with clubs, daggers, or axes, and shields.
are warriors maddened with battle lust. They attack at +2 to hit versus man-types and need never check morale. They carry two-handed weapons but wear no armor. Their leader-types are exclusively fighters.
are well-organized robbers and highway men. They wear leather armor, carry shields, are armed with swords, axes, maces, short bows, or spears and have a +1 adjustment to morale checks.
are picaroons and castaways who ply the shores for easy pickings from skiffs and pickets. They are unarmored and quick and carry swords or clubs and daggers as a main gauche.
are religious fanatics of the lawful sort. They attack at +2 to hit versus man-types and need never check morale due to their fanaticism. They carry clerical weaponry and shields and their leader-types are exclusively clerics.
are professional sell-swords and soldiers of fortune. They are well organized but untrustworthy military men possibly open to offers of employment. They typically have leather armor, helmets, and shields and are armed with swords, spears, pole arms, or crossbows. With a throw of 5-6 on a six-sided die one-third of their force will also be mounted.
are desert or steppe raiders who are always mounted. They carry short bows, spears, and shields.
are ruthless sea dogs and cut throats who pillage waterways and coastal regions from their sloops and galleys. They are unarmored and quick and arm themselves with curved swords or clubs and daggers as a main-gauche. They have a +1 adjustment to morale checks.
are religious fanatics of the chaotic sort. They attack at +2 to hit versus man-types and need never check morale due to their fanaticism. They carry clerical weaponry and shields and their leader-types are exclusively anti-clerics.
are aquatic warriors. Against man-types in the sea they attack at +2 and need never check morale. They can remain underwater indefinitely and are only subject to missile fire if they rise to the surface, which they must do to grapple or board ships. On land or aboard ships they suffer a −2 penalty to attack rolls and morale checks. Their scaly skin is equal to leather armor and they fight with spears and daggers. Meremen have leader-types as do men although these are exclusively fighters.
are great bull-headed humanoids half again as large as a man. They are carnivorous man-eaters and will always attack. They need never check morale and will never give up a chase so long as the prey is in sight.
are invulnerable to normal weaponry and even magical weaponry causes them only half damage. They are vulnerable to fire, however, even the ordinary sort. A hit from a mummy will cause a terrible necrosis such that wounds take 10 times as long to heal. The first and second applications of a remove disease spell will reduce this to 5 times and 2 times, respectively, and only a third application will lift the affliction entirely.
are small and comely fresh water sprites who are not evil but will compel intruders to serve their needs. Any 10 nixies can jointly enchant a target with a charm person and a water breathing spell. A character who fails to save versus spells will immediately proceed to the underwater lair and remain there in servitude. After a period of one year he will return to the surface unharmed. A dispel magic can prematurely break the enchantment but always has a 25% chance of failure.
Nixies arm themselves with daggers and javelins. Their lair will be an underwater enclave containing 2-16 charmed prisoners of various sorts, and protected by 20-120 giant fish such as gar or pike. These will obey nixies but can be held at bay by any fire that will burn underwater. Any group of 40 or more nixies can attempt to grapple a surface ship.
is a monstrous amoeba that lives as a dungeon scavenger. It is susceptible to cold and fire but lightning and weaponry will merely divide it into two smaller parts without causing it harm. An ochre jelly will dissolve a wooden shield or door in a single turn. Flesh contacted suffers 1-6 hit points of damage per turn but stone and metal are impervious. It can move along a wall, floor, or ceiling equally and can squeeze through tiny openings including cracks in stonework and under doors.
are intelligent and lair in shipwrecks and caves preying on passing swimmers and ships. They can grapple and capsize smaller vessels or else make 1-6 attack rolls each turn versus heroic/superheroic enemies with their stinging tentacles. They have no bones and can squeeze through very small gaps.
are thick-necked, ugly brutes half again as large as a man and possess great strength but limited wit. They cause 3-8 hit points of damage in combat due to their size and strength. They are so suspicious of their fellows that little treasure is left unguarded. Instead, each ogre carries 100-600 gp with him even outside of the lair.
are fecund humanoids occurring in warlike tribes. They dislike bright light and adjust attack and morale checks by −1 from in full daylight. Hostilities among orc tribes are just as common as with neighbors of other sorts and they will attack foreign orcs unless restrained by a strong leader. They need not check morale while they are defending their lair and they outnumber their enemies by at least 3 to 1.
An orc lair will be either a guarded cave complex or a village protected by a stockade and possibly an encircling ditch or moat. The lair will contain half as many non-combatants as combatants as well as an orc chieftain and 3-18 bodyguards who fight as 3 and 2 hit dice monsters, respectively.
A village is 33% likely to contain an additional 1-4 catapults, a high watch tower, 1-8 ogres, a 7th-8th level fighter, and a 9th-12th level magic-user (check for each separately). A cave complex is 33% likely to contain additional dead falls and other traps, 1-8 ogres, 1-6 trolls, or a dragon (check for each separately). If a dragon is present it will be a young, adult, or mature specimen of the black, green, blue, or red sort.
are shy, wild, and noble winged horses. If captured they are difficult to tame and will not tolerate hippogriffs or griffins. They will never serve chaotic characters.
are small air sprites who are permanently invisible unless they desire to be seen. They are not evil but dislike intrusion and any 10 pixies can jointly cause a sleep spell once per day which they use to dissuade potential offenders. They arm themselves with daggers and short bows and always attack by surprise unless they are detected by magical means. Note that fighters of 8th level and above will sense pixies within 3" even without seeing them.
are voracious burrowers up to 6ft in diameter and 60ft in length that occur almost everywhere. They always attack and need never check morale. A purple worm causes 2-12 hit points of damage and has a deadly venomous stringer in the tail but the huge maw is the main weapon; if a bite attack roll exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more, or is a 20 in any case, a man-sized or smaller target will be swallowed whole. Swallowed targets will be unconscious within 3 turns, slain within 6 turns, and the body unrecoverable after 12 turns. The interior gullet is AC 9 but can be attacked only by dagger or knife; at least 12 hit points of damage must be caused to cut a way out.
occur in plague proportions underground, squeezing through tiny gaps and tunnels in the earth and stone work. They cause only 1-3 hit points of damage but any hit can transmit a debilitating disease to man-types who fail to save versus poison at +4 on the die (a single saving throw being required per encounter). Unless commanded to fight by a vampire or lycanthrope they have −2 morale and will flee from fire.
are complex metal automatons with unfathomable electronic brains. They are self motivating and semi-intelligent and can be negotiated with to some extent. They are usually set on a “program” from which they will never waiver. Robots are cruelly strong and will strike for 3-8 hit points of damage. Many can fly by one means or another and the remainder are equipped with a disintegration ray which can be fired up to 6" thrice per day. A successful saving throw versus wands is required to avoid the beam. Robots cannot be subdued and need never check morale.
are gargantuan raptors that prey on cattle, horses, and even elephants. Their eyesight is peerless and they always spot hidden (but not invisible) man-types, even from high altitude. The largest rocs are so fearsome that normal man-types must check morale if attacked. Rocs lair in remote, mountainous aeries that are difficult to approach except on the wing. Those found in the lair will be of mixed life stages and there is a 50% chance that there will also be 1-6 unhatched eggs or fledglings.
Eggs and fledglings can be trained to serve as mounts if they can be captured. If the nest contains these, the mature rocs will attack anyone who approaches and never check morale; otherwise, the mature rocs will tolerate lawful characters and possibly even help them. Chaotic sorts can expect only a hostile reaction.
are the great cats of the Pliocene epoch, capable of hunting down dinosaurs. They are half as large again as ordinary tigers and every bit as canny and agile. They cause 2-9 hit points of damage or, if an attack roll exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more or is a 20 in any case, 4-14 hit points of damage.
are fire-types possessing high intelligence, the upper body of a man, and the hind section of a great serpent. They employ spears and pole arms and can be found in lava fields and environs of intense heat. Their touch causes inflammables to combust and 1-6 hit points of damage to non-fire creatures. In melee combat the upper body is AC 5 while the serpent section is AC 3. Opponents who are not fire-types suffer an additional 1-6 hit points of damage with each hit. However, if an attack roll exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more, a salamander instead constricts with its burning tail for 2-12 hit points of damage (plus 1-6 additional damage to non-fire creatures). They are themselves invulnerable to fire and normal weaponry.
are extremely aggressive hunters of horse-sized proportions. They sense things mainly through vibration in the earth and will always attack anything that approaches. An attack roll that exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more, or is a 20 in any case, indicates a hit by the venomous stinger, which is fatal unless a saving throw versus poison is successful; otherwise, it is assumed to be a pincer attack that deals 3-8 hit points of damage.
include the largest sea serpents, the whale-like leviathan (which has reportedly been mistaken for an island), and the many-tentacled kraken (which is confined to a null dimension unless it is called forth by an evil high priest to devour shipping and seaports). These exist principally as deadly perils to be avoided.
If the players insist on rousing sea monsters to combat, sea serpents will cause 2-12 hit points of damage and swallow man-sized or smaller targets whole as per purple worms and can encircle longboats and smaller ships within their coils and destroy them in 1-6 turns. The kraken can capsize any ship in 1-2 turns or else deliver 1-6 attack rolls versus heroic/superheroic enemies, each dealing 3-18 hit points of damage. The leviathan can capsize 1-3 ships in near proximity in a single turn or swallow a single ship whole in its vast maw—destroying the vessel and delivering 4-24 hit points of damage to everyone aboard as it swallows them.
are bleak incorporeal spirits that hunger for the life energy of living things and drain 1-4 points of strength on a hit. They are impervious to normal weaponry unless it is silvered, but magical weapons will do them double damage. Any man-type reduced to nil strength by a shadow is slain and will arise on the following night as a shadow. Strength lost is otherwise recovered at 1 point per hour.
are mindless undead brought forth by a magic-user or anti-cleric to serve some wicked purpose. These can carry shields or wear armor, or both, which would improve AC to 7 or 6, respectively. They are unaffected by normal missiles, require no sustenance, and need never check morale.
are encountered almost anywhere. Large snakes are up to 10ft long but are generally non-aggressive unless hunting or provoked; they are 50% likely to be venomous. Giant snakes are more aggressive and are of two sorts: vipers and constrictors. Vipers slither silently and are deadly venomous. Constrictors are non-venomous and their bite bite deals only 1-2 hit points of damage. However, if attacking by surprise or an attack roll exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more, a constrictor instead encircles its target, crushing man-types for 2-12 hit points of damage per turn. Constrictor-types can also be encountered at sea and are capable of encircling and destroying small boats within their coils in 1-6 turns.
are malevolent, incorporeal spirits. They can move through walls, ceilings, and floors and are impervious to normal weaponry. Their attack is a withering grasp that drains two experience levels on a hit. A man-type slain by a spectre will arise the following night as a spectre under the control of the monster that destroyed him. Any additional spectres encountered will be thralls of this sort.
occur commonly in dungeons. Large spiders are the size of a man’s hand and can scurry over floors, walls, and ceilings equally. Their bite is venomous but a saving throw versus poison is allowed at +2. Giant spiders are true horrors up to horse-sized. Their bite is deadly venomous and they are web builders—these being equal to a web spell in strength. They prefer to wait patiently in ambush and attack unwary victims. They will flee to a dark retreat if faced by superior opposition.
are voracious deep sea predators who will occasionally come to the surface to grapple and capsize passing vessels. They make 1-6 attack rolls each turn against heroic/superheroic enemies with their numerous tentacles. If seriously challenged they can expel a cloud of black ink and flee backwards at triple pace for three turns.
are great cats that occur in frigid to tropical woodlands. They are canny, agile, and superb hunters who will stalk prey patiently in order to attack by surprise. They can climb and swim and can leap 10ft upward or 40ft forward. They cause 2-7 hit points of damage or, if an attack roll exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more or is a 20 in any case, 2-12 hit points of damage.
are frightful humanoids similar to feral hobgoblins in appearance but they are far more dangerous. A thull will regenerate 1 lost hit point at the beginning of each turn and a scratch from its black nails will cause paralysis for 1 turn in normal man-types (except elves who are immune).
are enormous herbivores that roam temperate plains and wetlands in herds. Normally peaceful, they will charge and trample anything that provokes them causing 3-18 hit points of damage due to their great size.
is a most handsome and civilized giant. They are at least as intelligent as men, thrice as tall, and incredibly strong. They deliver 6-21 hit points of damage with their enormous weapons and have the use of any two magic-user or cleric spells of each spell level per day. A titan lair will contain an additional 3,000-18,000 gp.
will swallow halflings and smaller folk whole on any attack roll that exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more. They can hop 18" every other turn, swim, breath underwater, and are 50% likely to be venomous.
are 20-30ft tall tree-men. They are guardians of the ancient forests they inhabit and have little interest in the affairs of short-lived races such as men. If roused they are dangerous enemies and will deal 2-12 hit points of damage. They are invulnerable to normal weapons and suffer one-half damage from magical weaponry other than axes but are vulnerable to fire. Thrice per day a treant can awaken any other tree within 6". An awakened tree fights exactly as another treant without the ability to awaken others.
are thin, loathsome humanoids with rubbery green skin. They would be tall if they were not always hunched over. They have ogre-like strength but rarely employ anything more than tooth and claw so cause only 1-6 hit points of damage. They regenerate 3 lost hit points per turn, beginning three turns after injury, enabling even severed limbs to reattach or re-grow. The only way to permanently slay a troll is to burn its remains or immerse it in acid.
are fierce, noble, magical steeds. They are reclusive creatures who will tolerate contact only with a maiden of pure heart. If she is a valorous warrior a unicorn may consent to serve as her steed, using its horn as a lance when it charges. A unicorn saves as a 12th level magic-user, is able to sense enemies within 24", and can dimension door up to 36" once each day.
are dreadful and intelligent blood-sucking undead. Fortunately, they must sleep during the day in a coffin containing soil from their homeland. They are impervious to normal weaponry and regenerate 3 hit points per turn if injured. If reduced to 0 hit points they are not slain but forced to assume gaseous form and flee. They can polymorph into gaseous form or a giant bat at will and can call forth and command 10-80 bats, 2-12 giant rats, or 1-10 wolves.
Any man-type enduring eye contact with a vampire is subject to a charm person spell with a −2 adjustment to the saving throw. Once a victim is charmed the vampire can bite at the neck with impunity, draining two experience levels per turn of gorging. Any heroic/superheroic man-type so slain by a vampire will arise the next night as a vampire enslaved to the monster who made him. Others so slain arise instead as ghouls. Vampires are destroyed only by direct sunlight, immersion in running water, or a wooden stake through the heart. They can be held at bay by a strongly presented Cross, the smell of fresh garlic, or the face of a mirror.
are cunning hunters adept at moving through tunnels and crawl spaces in fierce packs. When an attack roll exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more a giant weasel bites and holds on, gorging on the victim’s blood and draining him of 1-4 hit points of strength the following turn and each turn thereafter, until it has sapped 1 point for each of its own hit points. Any victim reduced to nil strength is slain.
are so called for their pale coloration and dread demeanor. They occur in small bands in dense jungles and around ruined catacombs. They are larger and more aggressive than regular apes and have a taste for man-flesh. Worse yet, they possess a malign cunning employing rocks and stones as tools and their strength is such that they cause 1-11 hit points of damage on a hit.
are accursed undead that drain one experience level on a hit. They dislike light and their attack rolls and morale checks are penalized by −2 in daylight. They are impervious to normal weaponry unless it is silvered, but magic weapons will do them double damage. Any man-type slain by a wight will arise on the following night as a wight.
occur primarily in cold regions and hunt in packs.
includes dire wolves and wargs, both being larger than their normal kin. Wargs are especially cunning and evil and are 20% likely to speak the common tongue and always speak the chaotic tongue. They can be ridden by goblins although this will reduce either to 12" movement and a single attack roll each turn even versus normal-types.
are enormous, hairy, elephant-like mammals that occur in herds in arctic regions. They are more aggressive than mastodons and are invulnerable to cold. They cause 3-18 hit points of damage by charging, trampling, crushing, or goring with their mighty tusks.
are enormous, hairy, rhinoceros-like mammals that occur in arctic regions. They have poor eyesight but excellent hearing and are inclined to attack anything that approaches or spooks them. They are invulnerable to cold and cause 4-14 hit points of damage by charging, trampling, or crushing.
are dreadful undead that exist more in the spirit world and less in the physical. They dislike light and their attack rolls and morale checks are penalized by −2 in daylight. Normal man-types must check morale immediately if attacked by a wraith, while evil sorts fighting alongside one receive +1 on their morale dice. They drain one experience level on a hit. They are impervious to normal weaponry unless it is silvered, although silver weapons will do them only half damage. Any man-type slain by a wraith will arise on the following night as a wraith.
are dragon-like monsters with only one pair of legs, no breath weapon, and a deadly venomous stinger in the tail which is very agile and can strike all around. An attack roll that exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more, or is a 20 in any case, indicates a stinger attack; otherwise, it is a bite and claw attack that causes 3-8 hit points of damage.
is a deadly fungus found clinging to walls, floors, and ceilings underground. It is impervious to most attacks and can only be exterminated with fire. It dissolves wood in one turn and causes 1-6 hit points of damage per turn to flesh but has no effect on metal or stone. If it is disturbed there is a 50% chance a toxic spore cloud will burst forth causing man-types within 1" to save versus poison or die.
are mindless undead brought forth by a magic-user or anti-cleric to serve some wicked purpose. These can carry shields or wear armor, or both, which would improve AC to 8 or 7, respectively. They are unaffected by normal missiles, require no sustenance, and need never check morale.
When a monster lair is discovered it will contain the monsters’ treasure hoard (if any) according to its stated treasure type. The referee should dice for each category of treasure (copper, silver, gold, etc.) separately, firstly checking to determine if the category of treasure is present in the hoard and secondly, if it is present, to determine quantity.
The percentage figures are the chance that the category will be present and the range figures are quantites. For example, orcs have treasure type C so there is a 17% chance their lair will contain 1,000-12,000 cp, a 33% chance their lair will contain 1,000-4,000 sp, a 33% chance their lair will contain 1-4 gems, a 33% chance their lair will contain 1 piece of jewelry, and a 17% chance their lair will contain 2 items from the “Any Treasures” table.
Note that monsters do not carry treasure outside their lair unless stated otherwise in the explanation of monsters.
The value of gems and pieces of jewelry are individually determined.
Where maps or specific types of magic items are indicated the referee should dice on the appropriate treasure tables.
Maps reveal the location of a treasure trove which may contain valuables, or magic items, or both. A map will indicate the type and approximate worth of the treasure, which can be determined randomly or by the referee. A map will usually be cryptic or obscured—requiring the use of a comprehend languages spell or the expertise of a canny thief (if these are used) to decipher. The treasure indicated therein will be guarded by appropriate traps and/or monsters.
A suit of magical armor or an enchanted shield will reduce an opponent’s attack rolls by an amount equal to its adjustment. Thus, a suit of plate armor +1 will cause enemies to attack at −1, a shield +2 will cause enemies to attack at −2, and so on. If a character wearing magical armor also carries an enchanted shield of greater potency, its greater adjustment is applicable on any turn he throws a 5 or 6 on a six-sided die.
These items are usable by all characters unless noted otherwise.
An amulet that blocks all forms of magical detection including by crystal ball, locate object, detect invisibility, sixth sense, and witch eye. It is ineffective against mundane detection, however.
An amazing sack that can hold up to 10,000 coins and appear only partially full and weigh only 50 lb. Anything not wider than 3ft × 3ft can be fit into it.
Elvish footwear that enables the wearer to move almost completely silently.
Empowers the wearer to levitate as per the magic-user spell of the same name but with unlimited duration.
Anyone so shod may run at up to 24" for a full day after which he must rest for a day.
The wearer can sustain his full speed indefinitely without need of rest. Furthermore, thrice per day he can make a great leap up to 6" forward or 2" directly upward or backward, landing soundly on his feet.
The wearer of this cloak appears slightly displaced in time and space adding +2 to saving throws versus wands and rays and adjusting physical attack rolls by −2.
A wondrous cloak that renders the wearer nearly invisible.
Employable by magic-users only, these provide vision of a desired place, person, or object. Great distance and unfamiliarity will decrease the chance that the subject can be located, however. Except as noted below, the other senses will remain unsatisfied. Spells such as read magic, darkvision, and detect invisibility will affect what may be seen but no spell or spell-like effect can be cast through a crystal ball. Most crystal balls enable only clairvoyance but 1 in 6 will also permit the magic-user to hear thoughts exactly as does the sixth sense spell. These may be used no more than thrice per day without risk of being feebleminded and each turn of usage requires a turn of rest thereafter.
This pair of great drums are too large to be carried by a man-type but may be transported on a wagon or beast of burden. When beaten these drums will panic all living things at least 2" but not more than 12" away. Heroic-types are allowed a saving throw versus spells to resist; superheroic-types are unaffected. Panicked creatures will flee at their fastest rate for a turn.
The efreet trapped in this bottle will grudgingly serve whomever should free him (and no other) for a year and a day.
This magical broom is employable by magic-users only and can fly at 24" per turn with one rider, or at 18" per turn with two riders.
Can carry one or two riders at 24" per turn or three riders at 12" per turn.
The wearer of these gains strength equal to an ogre, enabling him to perform feats of great strength and to deal +2 hit points damage in combat.
The wearer of this wide leather girdle gains strength equal to a hill giant. He is capable of mighty feats of strength including hurling rocks and dealing 2-12 hit points of damage in combat.
are not considered to be armor. They do not adjust armor class and magic-users are not restricted from wearing them. Should these be worn in battle the referee may assume that 1 blow in 6 is aimed at the head. If that blow should connect the helm is struck and requires a successful saving throw to avoid being smashed.
If worn, this helm immediately causes lawful persons to become chaotic and vice versa. Neutral persons are 50% likely to change either way. Removing the helm thereafter will not revert the subject’s alignment—this can only be accomplished by a wish. Of course the affected person will resist such efforts to the utmost of his ability.
Magic The wearer can read any magical inscriptions, treasure maps, and mundane writing.
This helm enables the wearer to probe subjects within 9" in exactly the same manner as the sixth sense spell. Additionally, the wearer can implant a mental suggestion in any intelligent subject so sensed. If a suggestion is attempted the referee throws a reaction check for the subject, adjusting the result by +2. A positive or better reaction indicates that the subject will enact any reasonable (according to his alignment) suggestion.
This helm grants magic-users only the ability to teleport up to three times per day as per the magic-user spell. If the magic-user also has the teleport spell memorized that spell will not be erased from memory when cast for so long as this helm is worn.
A blast upon this great horn delivers 2-12 hit points of damage to all living things within a cone-shaped area of effect 10" long and up to 3" wide. Survivors are deafened for a turn and any buildings or fortifications suffer structural damage.
Grants the wearer use of the sixth sense spell except that there is 1 chance in 6 it will fail to perceive any particular subject.
A shield-sized mirror that traps any man-type or undead who sees his own reflection at 1" or closer. It is 90% likely that an unwary subject will see his reflection in good light, but only 10% likely if he is wary of the mirror’s power. A magic-user can gaze into a mirror safely with a secret command word or the use of a gazeback spell. The mirror can contain 15-20 prisoners at one time with each being held individually in a private null dimension. Those so imprisoned remain unharmed but are completely powerless therein. A magic-user can call any prisoner to the surface of the mirror to converse, and if desired, can free them from the mirror. Breaking the mirror will free all prisoners simultaneously.
These four objects are usable by magic-users only, each conjuring an elemental of a particular type. The conjuration requires a full turn of preparation and another of invocation. The elemental brought forth will then have 12 hit dice and be subject to the magic-user’s will exactly as per the invoke elemental spell.
Affords the wearer absolute immunity from disintegration, finger of death, level drain, vorpal swords, and curses. The scarab will nullify 2-12 such attacks before crumbling to dust.
(50% chance of either) are usable by fighters only. The magical adjustment applies both to attack and damage rolls. The attack adjustment is cumulative with that of any magical bow so a +1 arrow fired from a +1 longbow would have a total attack adjustment of +2.
(50% chance of either battle axe or hand axe) are usable by fighters only. The magical adjustment for battle axes applies to both attack and damage rolls, but that for hand axes applies to attack rolls only. Hand axes can be hurled up to 3" as a medium range missile attack.
are equally likely to be crossbows, longbows, or short bows; all are usable by fighters only. The magical adjustment of these applies to attack rolls only.
are usable by fighters, magic-users, and thieves (if these are used). The magical adjustment applies to attack rolls only. The second adjustment (if given) is applicable to attack rolls versus a specific type. Daggers can be hurled up to 3" as a medium range missile attack.
are usable by fighters and clerics. The magical adjustment applies to damage rolls only.
usable by fighters only. The magical adjustment applies to damage rolls only.
are usable by fighters and thieves (if these are used). The magical adjustment applies to attack rolls only. The second adjustment (if given) is applicable to attack rolls versus a specific type.
are usable by fighters only. The magical adjustment applies to attack rolls only but they can be hurled up to 3" as a medium range missile attack, and three men can fight in a defensive spear wall across a 10ft wide passage. Spears can also be set against a charging foe to cause 2-12 hit points of damage on impact.
are usable by fighters and clerics and the magical adjustment applies to damage rolls only. These can be hurled up to 3" as a medium range missile attack.
In the hands of a fighter or cleric this weapon adds +3 hit points to damage. In the hands of a dwarf, however, it causes 2-12 hit points of damage against all foes except giants, against which it causes 5-15 hit points of damage. Additionally, a dwarf can throw the war hammer +3 up to 6" and it will automatically fly back to his hand.
A potion flask contains exactly enough fluid to cause the prescribed effect, although a small sip may be tasted without altering its efficacy. The duration of any temporary effect is 7-12 turns unless stated otherwise.
Quaffing the full potion will reduce a person to one-twelfth size. Thus, a 6ft tall man-type would shrink to 6in. Consuming a lesser part will have a proportionally lesser effect.
The imbiber gains control over 3-18 small animals, 2-12 medium sized animals, or 1-6 large animals. Only normal animal-types can be controlled.
Restores 2-7 lost hit points.
Causes the imbiber to believe the effect is whatever he desired it to be or a randomly determined potion effect determined by the referee.
The imbiber gains control over up to three dragons who fail to save versus spells. Each potion affects one type of dragon as determined by the referee.
Quaffing the full potion will enlarge a person to four times size. Thus, a 6ft tall man-type would grow to 24ft. Consuming a lesser part will have a proportionally lesser effect.
Quaffing the full potion restores 6-21 lost hit points. Taking a one-third part of it will restore 1-6 lost hit points.
Consumption of this potion has the same effect as a fly spell except that it lasts for 7-12 turns.
The imbiber becomes a cohesive, mobile cloud of gas that can penetrate any non-airtight space. However, anything worn or carried drops to a heap on the floor.
The imbiber gains control over up to four giants who fail to save versus spells. Each potion affects only one type of giant, as determined by the referee.
Grants strength equal to a hill giant including hurling rocks and causing 2-12 hit points of damage per hit.
Imbues the imbiber with the same effect as the haste spell except that it lasts for 2-7 turns.
Causes an ordinary man-type to function as a heroic fighter in all respects. Leveled fighters are also temporarily increased as follows:
Grants invulnerability to normal weaponry and improves saving throws by +2 for 7-12 turns.
Drinking this potion produces the same effect as the magic-user invisibility spell for 7-12 turns.
The imbiber gains control over 2-12 normal men, 1-6 heroic men, or 1 superheroic man as per the charm person spell. Saving throws are applicable.
The imbiber gains control over ordinary plants within a 6" diameter or 1-6 ooze-types (including slimes, oozes, and puddings).
Even a sip is fatal unless a saving throw versus poison is successful.
Produces the same effect as the magic-user polymorph spell except that it lasts only 7-12 turns.
Grants invulnerability to ordinary fire and adjusts saving throws versus magical fire, including fireball and red dragon breath, by +2. Any fire damage sustained is reduced by 1 hit point per die regardless.
Drinking this potion produces the same effect as the magic-user sixth sense spell for 7-12 turns.
Quaffing this potion enables the detection of any treasure worth 5,000 gp or more within 36". It is not blocked by lead, stone, or anything else.
The imbiber gains control over 2-12 normal undead or 1-6 heroic undead as per the charm monster spell. The latter are allowed saving throws versus spells.
The imbiber can breathe comfortably underwater for 7-12 turns.
Imbibing this potion has the same effect as the magic-user levitate spell for 7-12 turns.
Enables the imbiber to see through up to 10ft of stone or 6in of iron to a distance of 6" for 7-12 turns. Everything will be revealed including traps and secret places. The magic is obstructed by lead or gold and only a 1" × 1" section of wall can be examined each turn.
Reduces the imbiber’s age by 10 years.
Magic rings are usable by all characters though they must be worn in order to function. One ring may be worn on each hand and these will have a continual effect unless noted otherwise in the description.
The wearer may exert control over 3-18 small animals, 2-12 medium-sized animals, or 1-6 large animals within 6" at any one time. Only ordinary animal-types can be controlled.
The wearer can see in darkness as per the magic-user darkvision spell for so long as he wears this ring.
Causes the wearer to believe the effect is whatever he originally desired it to be or an effect determined by the referee.
The wearer becomes invisible as per the magic-user invisibility spell for so long as he wears this ring.
The wearer may exert control over 2-12 normal men, 1-6 heroic men, or 1 superheroic man within 6" at any time. All are allowed saving throws versus spells in the same manner as per the charm person spell.
The wearer’s saving throws are adjusted by +2 and any attack rolls that are targeted at him are adjusted by −2 for so long as he wears this ring.
Causes the wearer to regain 1 lost hit point each turn. Severed limbs will reattach or re-grow. If the wearer is reduced to 0 (or fewer) hit points he will even return from the dead if he makes a successful shock survival check. Only fire or acid will destroy the wearer with certainty.
Grants the wearer invulnerability to ordinary fire and adjusts saving throws versus magical fire, including fireball and red dragon breath, by +2. Any fire damage sustained is reduced by 1 hit point per die regardless.
A ring of this type can store 1-6 spells of either the magic-user, cleric, or anti-cleric sort with a throw of 1-4, 5, or 6 on a six-sided die, respectively. The anti-clerical rings are harmful to clerics and vice versa. Whether there are stored spells in the ring, and what spells they are, should be determined randomly if such a ring is found. Anyone (including a non-spell caster) who places this ring on his finger immediately knows which spells, if any, are stored therein and may invoke them. Each stored spell can be invoked once before it is expended. The ring can only be recharged by a magic-user, cleric, or anti-cleric, respectively.
Any spell targeted specifically at the wearer of this ring is 80% likely to be turned back at the caster. For each experience level the spell caster has beyond the 4th it is 10% less likely that his spell will be turned.
The wearer is able to shift loads up to 200 lb at a rate of 12" to anywhere within a 12" radius simply by concentrating.
The wearer may call forth a djinni who is permanently bound to serve whoever wears the ring. The djinni is as are all monsters of its type.
Enables the wearer to walk on water as if he were walking on dry land.
The wearer is reduced to half his usual strength and is affected by a slow spell for so long as he wears this ring. It can only be removed by a remove curse spell or a wish.
Grants either 3 or 1-6 (50% chance of either) wishes to the wearer. A wish is powerful magic indeed but only the most literal interpretation of a wish will be honored.
A wish must be uttered in one breath. It can be used to heal a player, to restore him to life, to lift curses, to dispel magic, and so on. Ability scores can be restored to normal or raised by 1 point (up to 18). A lost experience level can be restored but a new experience level cannot be added. Any wealth or object brought to hand will come from the nearest source and the rightful owner will not be pleased with this theft.
The referee should adjudicate the effects of a wish carefully. A wish that all orcs should die, for example, might have no effect given that orcs are mortal and will die eventually in any case.
Enables the wearer to see through up to 10ft of stone or 6in of iron to a distance of 6". Everything will be revealed including traps and secret places. The magic is obstructed by lead or gold and only a 1" × 1" section of wall can be examined each turn.
Scrolls are either spell scrolls, wards, or curses. Each type can be identified by anyone who can read. Spell scrolls are usable only by the appropriate magical types and curses are triggered as soon as they are identified.
Spell scrolls are of the magic-user, cleric, or anti-cleric sort when a 1-4, 5, or 6 is thrown on a six-sided die, respectively. A spell scroll will contain 1-3 spells with the level and name of each spell being determined randomly. A spell invoked from a scroll is as per the minimum caster level necessary to memorize the spell.
Wards function as does the circle of protection from evil spell except that they are effective against a specific type and number of monsters and have a duration of one hour.
Effective against a single elemental of any type.
Effective against 2-12 lycanthropes of any type.
Effective against all magic in a 1" sphere about the invoker for one hour in the same manner as the anti-magic shield spell.
Effective against 4-24 normal undead, 2-12 heroic undead, or 1-6 superheroic undead.
Curses will affect the invoker and any man-types within 15ft.
Staves are employable by magic-users and clerics as weapons or for firing spell-like effects as an 8th level caster. A staff holds up to 200 charges but will have only 10-200 charges when found.
Wands are employable by magic-users only and will fire spell-like effects as a 6th level caster. A wand holds up to 100 charges but will have only 10-100 charges when found.
Each use of a spell-like effect drains one charge unless stated otherwise.
Usable by clerics only, this staff adds +1 to attack and damage rolls. On a successful attack the cleric can expend one charge to transmute the staff into a mass of writhing serpents that coil about the target preventing a man-sized opponent from attacking for 1-4 turns. After this period the serpents slither back to their owner and return to staff form.
Usable by clerics only, this staff cures 2-7 hit points at a touch. It will function only once on any one person each day.
This staff has the combined powers of plant mastery, animal mastery, and mastery over men.
Employable by magic-users only, this staff can invoke a lightning bolt, fireball, or cone of intense cold 6" long and up to 2" wide. Each of these cause 8-48 hit points of damage but a successful saving throw will reduce this damage by half. Additionally, the staff may cause continuous light, wall of fire, and telekinesis (up to 250 lb). If used in combat it performs as a staff of smiting.
As a last resort the wielder may perform a final strike, thereby breaking the staff and releasing all its remaining energy. The resulting blast causes 1 point of damage per remaining charge to all creatures within 3".
Uses no charges but causes 2-12 hit points of damage on a hit.
Employable by magic-users only, this staff has all the functions of the staff of power and can additionally invoke a whirlwind (as a djinn), invisibility, invoke elemental (8 HD), paralysis (as the wand), passwall, wall of ice, and web.
A successful hit causes 1-6 points of damage and ages the target by one decade. This has little impact upon elves but is a terrible toll upon men.
This wand will dispel magic exactly as per the magic-user dispel magic spell.
Use of this wand will reveal anyone within 6" who is hostile or malicious toward the wielder.
Use of this wand will reveal the presence of any ongoing magic spells or enchanted objects within 2". Expending a second charge will reveal the general nature of one specific spell or enchanted item.
Use of this wand will reveal the location and type of any metal of at least 100 lb (2,000 coins) mass within 2".
Use of this wand will reveal any secret or concealed doors or passages within 2".
Use of this wand will reveal any and all traps within 2".
This wand will produce a cone of panic exactly as per the magic-user fear spell.
This wand will invoke a 6 dice fireball exactly as per the magic-user fireball spell.
This wand will produce a cone of intense cold 6" long and up to 2" wide which causes 6 dice of damage to everyone in the area. A saving throw versus breath weapons will reduce this damage by half.
This wand will invoke a 6 dice lightning bolt exactly as per the magic-user lightning bolt spell.
This wand will invoke a 9" long, baleful ray which will paralyze any single man-type for 2-12 turns unless he makes a successful saving throw versus wands.
This wand will generate an illusion exactly as per the magic-user phantasm spell, except that the wielder can move at a normal walk while maintaining the illusion. Breaking the wielder’s concentration will end the illusion.
Use of this wand enables the wielder to polymorph himself or others exactly as per the magic-user polymorph and baleful polymorph spells.
Magic swords are usable by fighters only. In addition to their attack and damage adjustments the greatest magic swords also have intelligence, alignment, purpose, and the possibility of spell-like powers. The second magical adjustment (if given) is applicable to attack and damage rolls against the specified target types. The first magical adjustment applies to attack and damage rolls against all other targets.
Subtracts from attack rolls and will always (magically) appear in hand. The player will have great difficulty ridding himself of this weapon.
Causes additional damage to one specific man-type including men, elves, dwarfs, and halflings.
Causes additional damage to lycanthropes and shape-shifters.
Causes additional damage to magic-users and magic-using monsters.
Causes additional damage to giants.
Causes additional harm to one specific type of dragon. If this sword is chaotic it is especially harmful to golden dragons. If this sword is lawful it is especially harmful to either white, black, green, blue, or red dragons; otherwise, it will be harmful to any one type.
Causes additional damage to any regenerating creatures including trolls, clerics, and characters with regenerating rings or swords.
This sword is continually afire with magical flames. It deals +3 damage to creatures of cold and those vulnerable to fire including mummies, treants, and white dragons.
This sword glimmers with frigid blue light. It deals +3 damage to creatures of fire and those vulnerable to cold including fire elementals, efreet, and red dragons.
This sword is always lawful regardless of its intelligence. In the hands of a lawful fighter it is a sword +2, +4 versus chaotics and functions as a ring of spell turning against chaotic spell casters; otherwise, it functions only as a sword +2.
this sword is always chaotic regardless of its intelligence. In the hands of a chaotic fighter it is a sword +2, +4 versus lawfuls and functions as a ring of spell turning against lawful spell casters; otherwise, it functions only as a sword +2.
This sword is always neutral, regardless of its intelligence. In the hands of a neutral fighter any attack roll that exceeds the number required to hit by 4 or more, or is a 20 in any case, will decapitate a man-type who fails to save versus wands; otherwise, it functions only as a sword +2.
When a magic sword is indicated the referee should dice on the magic swords table and then throw two six-sided dice to determine whether the sword is intelligent. A result of 2-6 indicates a non-intelligent sword much like other magical weaponry. A result of 7 or more indicates an intelligent sword with the possibility of additional powers.
Some magic swords are intelligent as determined by a throw of two six-sided dice.
Dicing 6 or less indicates a regular magic weapon. Dicing 7 or more indicates an intelligent, living thing with its own motivations and personality. The referee should play it as he would any other non-player character, bearing in mind the sword may not be friendly to its wielder—this being determined by an initial reaction check and the developing relationship between them.
An intelligent sword is able to communicate. Empathic communication is via physical hints such as pointing, leaning, shaking, and vibrating. Verbal communication is via an audible voice spoken in any language the sword knows. An intelligent sword capable of verbal communication will always know its alignment tongue and a number of additional languages determined by two six-sided dice.
The most intelligent magic swords are able to read magic and to communicate telepathically in addition to their ability to speak.
All intelligent magic swords are either lawful, neutral, or chaotic. A holy sword is always lawful, an unholy sword is always chaotic, and a vorpal sword is always neutral, regardless of its intelligence.
Any character who willingly handles an enchanted sword of a different alignment will suffer 1-6 hit points of damage for each step its alignment is removed from his. For example, a lawful player will suffer 2-12 hit points of damage if he handles a chaotic sword. A character contacting a magical sword unwillingly or under instruction is spared half this damage.
All intelligent swords have an ego. The higher a sword’s ego the more challenging it will be to master. A sword’s ego rating is determined by throwing two six-sided dice and adjusting the result by +1 for each additional language or power the sword possesses (whichever is greater).
Intelligent swords will possess a number of additional powers and exceptional powers. The referee should roll on the Magic Sword Powers table and, if necessary, the Magic Sword Exceptional Powers table to determine each of these functions.
The wielder is required to hold the sword unsheathed and to concentrate for a turn in order to invoke any of these powers. Only a single power may be used each turn but they can otherwise be used thrice per day, with the exception of regeneration (which is continuous) and wishes (which can be used a total of 3 or 1-6 times).
Unless noted otherwise, these powers are as the equivalent magic-user spells.
A sword with the life stealing power can invoke a finger of death once per day and is always chaotic. If it is a holy or vorpal sword it is declared an unholy sword instead.
The most potent magic swords have been forged for a specific purpose.Should a sword have both 9 or more intelligence and 9 or more ego it is a purposed sword. It will have the maximum intelligence and ego—promote both to 12 but do not add powers if intelligence is raised.
The purpose of such a sword is determined by dicing on the Magic Sword Purpose table.
In all cases the purpose of a sword is according to its alignment. Thus, a lawful sword purposed to destroy magic-users is purposed to destroy chaotic magic-users only. A neutral purposed sword affects lawful and chaotic types equally.
An intelligent sword also has a dominance rating which is the sum of its intelligence and ego.
A sword may mentally wrestle for dominance over its wielder in order to get its own way when any of the following (or similar) circumstances arise:
Compare the sword’s dominance to the sum of the player character’s wisdom, charisma, and fighter level. The player character adds 1-6 if he is fresh and uninjured but subtracts 1-6 if he has fewer than half of his total possible hit points. The sword adds 2-12 if its alignment differs from the player character’s.
If there is any difference in the sword’s favor it gains control over the character unless he makes a successful saving throw versus spells. If the difference is 6 or more no saving throw is allowed.
Whenever a sword dominates its wielder it causes him to act in accordance with its own goals. This means disposing of competing weapons, entering into glorious (or ignoble) combat, decorating itself with bejeweled hilt-work or scabbards, surrendering itself to a superior wielder who can better achieve its goals (or an inferior one whom it can more easily dominate), or any other actions that serve its own end. Domination is usually exerted for the duration of one such action.
Much has been written down and accounted for, but all the words in this book are merely a foundation for what will ultimately be a fantasy game campaign of the referee’s own devising. He is encouraged to create liberally and enthusiastically and to welcome input from his players. Their choices and actions should ring true in the game world so that it thrives and invites further participation. With a living game in motion the referee can derive considerable enjoyment from extending or altering the rules to meet his own particular needs. In this case the referee is cautioned to do so judiciously and with consistency.
Above all, referees and players alike are reminded that this is a game and that games are meant to be fun.
OPEN GAME LICENSE Version 1.0a
The following text is the property of Wizards of the Coast, Inc. and is Copyright 2000 Wizards of the Coast, Inc ("Wizards"). All Rights Reserved.
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15 COPYRIGHT NOTICE
Open Game License v 1.0 Copyright 2000, Wizards of the Coast, Inc.
System Reference Document Copyright 2000, Wizards of the Coast, Inc.; Authors Jonathan Tweet, Monte Cook, Skip Williams, based on material by E. Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson.
Delving Deeper Reference Rules v2 Volume 1: The Adventurer's Handbook Copyright 2012, Cameron Dubeers and Simon J. Bull. Delving Deeper Reference Rules v2 Volume 2: The Referee's Guide Copyright 2012, Cameron Dubeers and Simon J. Bull. Delving Deeper Reference Rules v2 Volume 3: The Monster & Treasure Reference Copyright 2012, Cameron Dubeers and Simon J. Bull.
Delving Deeper Reference Rules v3 Volume 1: Heroes & Magic Copyright 2014, Simon J. Bull. Delving Deeper Reference Rules v3 Volume 2: Delving & Exploration Copyright 2014, Simon J. Bull. Delving Deeper Reference Rules v3 Volume 3: Monsters & Treasures Copyright 2014, Simon J. Bull.
Delving Deeper Reference Rules Hypertext Copyright 2014, Simon J. Bull.
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